THE INCLUSIVE UNIVERSITY: DISABILITY AND DIVERSITY, DISABILITY AS DIVERSITY
This section includes resources where either disability is included as a component of diversity or where disability is considered as a minority (sometimes multiple minority) status, whether it be related to gender, sexual orientation, or race. What is missing, however, are more resources available that consider disability culture within the postsecondary environment.
AACC/ACCT Joint Statement on Leadership and Diversity. (2008). Community College Journal, 79
Community colleges serve larger percentages of African-Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and students with disabilities than any other segment of higher education, and well over half of community college students are women. Together, AACC and ACCT will continue and expand their collaboration to ensure that community college leaders--trustees and presidents--work in partnership to ensure the continued success of community colleges, while also ensuring the doors of opportunity remain wide open to those who aspire to a higher education and to those who seek to lead such institutions.
Anderson, R. C. (2006). Teaching (with) disability: Pedagogies of lived experience. In L. M. Cooks & K. LeBesco (Eds.), The pedagogy of the teacher’s body [Special issue]. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 28
“The disability perspective promises new insights for critical pedagogy. Disability is not just another specialty with concerns loosely related to other minorities. The experience of disability is relevant to all marginalized groups—for all groups have people with disabilities in them. The persistent irony is that the experiences of people with disabilities have been noticeably absent from critical discourse within these groups. Indeed, people with disabilities are the world’s largest multicultural minority. This essay presents a means for considering disability in educational practice, and identifies points of discovery for future critical research. Specifically, it considers the intersections of experience and pedagogy that professors with disabilities bring to the classroom” (p. 367).
Anderson, R. J., Keller, C. E., & Karp. J. M. (Eds.). (1998). Enhancing diversity: Educators with disabilities.
Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
The 43 million people with disabilities form this country's largest minority group, yet they are markedly under-employed as educators. Enhancing Diversity: Educators with Disabilities paves the way for correcting this costly omission. Editors Anderson, Karp, and Keller have called upon the knowledge of 19 other renowned contributors to address the important issues raised in Enhancing Diversity, including the place of disability in discussions of diversity in education, research on educators with disabilities that validates their capabilities, and information on the qualifications desired in and the demands made of education professionals. Legal precedents are cited and explained, and examples of efforts to place disabled educators are presented, along with recommendations on how disabled individuals and school administrators can work toward increased opportunities. Interviews with 25 disabled educators discussing how they satisfactorily fulfill their professional requirements completes this thoughtful-provoking book.
David, M. E. (2009). Social diversity and democracy in higher education in the 21st century: Towards a feminist critique. Higher Education Policy, 22
This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and 'academic capitalism'. Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK higher education policies and practices is the focus. Diversity has replaced more traditional conceptualizations of socioeconomic inequalities, and has shifted from being about ethnicity/race to one of 'widening participation' or 'fair' access to higher education, including social class, disabilities, gender and age. Debate focuses on individual students on first or undergraduate degrees, whether full or part-time, and how higher education institutions can contribute to graduate employment, individual or social mobility, rather than re-inscribing social stratification. I present an analysis that demonstrates the challenges and dilemmas about equality and diversity in UK mass higher education and conclude that despite expansion of higher education 'persistent inequalities' remain. I reveal UK policy shifts around gender as concerning women, as students or academics, to one about lack of educational opportunities in post-compulsory education for young men from poor or disadvantaged family backgrounds as students, ignoring the question of women's opportunities and contributions to new forms of academic practice. I argue that this illustrates how new forms of higher education, despite expansion and increasing participation, remain resistant to some of the feminist and critical yet creative challenges about transformations in academic practice and development.
Dodd, J. M., Rose, P. M., & Belcourt, L. (1992). Tribal college faculty attitudes toward accommodations and services for students with disabilities. Tribal College, IV
Higher percentages of disabilities have been reported among Indian people than other ethnic groups. If Indian persons with disabilities are to have access comparable to others, tribal colleges will need to provide accommodations and services. Therefore, this was a study of tribal college faculty willingness to provide accommodations and their attitudes toward accommodations. Faculty were surveyed at 25 of the 26 colleges in the United States which are members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium. Generally faculty members were favorable toward accommodations.
Reports of disabilities among American Indian people reveal a higher percentage of disabilities than the United States population in general (O'Connell, 1987; U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1983.) Among the reported disabilities are organic brain syndrome, learning disabilities, orthopedic disabilities, mental illness, hearing impairment, and visual impairment. American Indian students with disabilities might not have access equal to other students if tribal colleges do not provide services and accommodations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine tribal college faculty attitudes towards accommodations for students with disabilities.
Haines, D. W. (2007). 'Crossing lines of difference': How college students analyse diversity. Intercultural Education, 18
Contemporary American college students confront increased diversity during their college years in race, class, nationality, religion, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, age, and disability. Yet, how do students conceptualize this diversity, evaluate the options it provides, and assess its limitations? Furthermore, how do those researching diversity develop approaches that are flexible and open enough to reflect emerging student ways of thinking about diversity? Based on work at a diverse US public university especially a pilot project on free-form student essays this paper examines how students conceptually navigate an environment that both encourages and inhibits interaction across difference. These students indicate skepticism about the marketing of diversity and frustration at the limited interaction across difference on campus, yet also an appreciation of the opportunities that diversity provides.
Harley, D. A., Nowak, T. M., Gassaway, L. J., & Savage, T. A. (2002). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender college students with disabilities: A look at multiple cultural minorities. Psychology in the Schools, 39
College students with disabilities who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) represent diverse cultural minorities with multiple service needs involving disabilities, identities, and adjustment strategies. These students are usually accommodated in the college environment because of their disability while simultaneously marginalized based on their sexual orientation. This article discusses LGBT college students with disabilities as multiple cultural minorities with a focus on educational environments, institutional issues, and strategies for university personnel.
Holcomb, L. P., & Giesen, C. (1995). Coping with challenges: College experiences of older women and women with disabilities. In J. C. Chrisler & A. H. Hemstreet (Eds.), Variations on a theme: Diversity and the psychology of women
(pp. 175-200). Albany: State University of New York Press.
“The purpose of this chapter is to introduce concerns of both older women and women with disabilities as they experience their undergraduate college years. Although the viewpoints and needs of these two populations of women students differ to a degree, they share commonalities in terms of the “cumulative burdens” they bring to the college experience from earlier confrontation with and oppression from a variety of systems…” (p. 175).
Leake, D., & Cholmay, M. (2004, February). Addressing the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities in postsecondary education. Information Brief, 3
(1). Minneapolis: National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from: http://www.ncset.org/publications/viewdesc.asp?id=1411
“Persons with disabilities usually must overcome a variety of challenges not faced by their peers without disabilities in order to gain entry to and succeed in postsecondary education. These challenges are likely to be especially difficult for persons with disabilities of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) heritage. Compared to non-CLD students with disabilities, CLD students with disabilities are more likely to face language and social barriers, the negative effects of having grown up in poverty, and difficulty processing “standard English” oral and written information, all of which may contribute to their risk of school failure (Greene & Nefsky, 1999). It has also been argued that persons with disabilities comprise a minority group whose members, like members of other minorities, are often stereotyped and subjected to negative perceptions and low expectations. From this perspective, many CLD persons with disabilities face a double burden of discrimination (Fine & Asch, 1988).
In view of the multiple challenges faced by many CLD persons with disabilities, it is not surprising that the initial National Longitudinal Transition Study found that, compared to non-CLD persons with disabilities, they achieve significantly poorer transition outcomes, including lower employment rates, lower average wages, and lower postsecondary education participation rates (Blackorby & Wagner, 1996). Low postsecondary education participation rates are reflected in Table 1, which shows that the proportion of college students reporting a disability is considerably lower for each of the CLD groups (with the exception of American Indians/Alaskan Natives) compared to Whites. This brief will outline the major challenges that tend to be faced by CLD persons with disabilities in postsecondary education and how to address these challenges” (p. 1).
Leicester, M. & Lovell, T. (1994). Equal opportunities and university practice: Race, gender and disability: A comparative perspective. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 18
This paper provides a comparative analysis of data arising from three recent surveys of equal opportunity practice in relation to race, gender and disability. The surveys gathered information from a range of university departments and included questions about departmental structures and organisation as well as curriculum development. Instances of good practice are described, and some implications explored for the further development of equal opportunities in higher education.
Oesterreich, H. A., & Knight, M. G. (2008, May). Facilitating transitions to college for students with disabilities from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43
“This article examines how the intersection of race, class, and disability informs the responsibilities of special educators. A diverse set of practices needs to be used with working-class African American, Latino/Latina, and Native American students with disabilities to increase their social and cultural capital and support their prospective college-going identities” (p. 300-301).
Parasnis, I., & Fischer, S. D. (2005, Fall). Perceptions of diverse educators regarding ethnic-minority deaf college students, role models, and diversity. American Annals of the Deaf, 150
In a qualitative study, the researchers documented the perceptions of deaf and hearing ethnically diverse university faculty and staff regarding issues related to the education of ethnic-minority deaf college students. These experienced educators commented on the importance of ethnic-minority role models for deaf college students, the academic preparedness of ethnic-minority deaf students, these students’ level of comfort on campus, and the success of institutional efforts to increase awareness regarding ethnic diversity. The insightful reflections of these diverse educators can be informative in improving the educational experience of ethnic-minority deaf students.
Pardeck, J. T. (2001). Using the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) as a tool for helping social work faculty develop cultural competence in the area of disability. The Clinical Supervisor, 20
This article develops the theme of the importance of viewing disability as a part of cultural diversity. The ADA is offered as a tool for helping social work faculty develop cultural competence in the area of disability. Particular emphasis is placed on affirmative approaches for increasing the number of students with disabilities in social work programs. Teaching social work faculty and support staff about disability etiquette is offered with examples of various disabilities. The article encourages social work programs to offer training on disabilities for faculty and support staff.
Pearson, H. (2010). Complicating intersectionality through the identities of a hard of hearing Korean adoptee: An autoethnography. In L. D. Patton, R. A. Shahjahan; & N. Osei-Kofi (Eds.), Emergent Approaches to Diversity and Social Justice in Higher Education [Feature Issue]. Equity & Excellence in Education, 43
Within education and social justice, the lenses of race, class, and gender are prevalent in analyzing multifaceted oppression, but there is a need to expand beyond those in order to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the intricacies of oppression. The autoethnographic approach enables me to use my experiences a Korean adoptee with a disability as an entry point to examine intersectional and interlocking oppression and to offer a different frame of reference that is absent in the literature: the integration of Korean adoptee and Disability Studies literature to further problematize each field and to complicate and advance the understanding of oppression. The critical self-reflexive process of writing allowed me to contest the prevailing representation and knowledge through my experiences and to develop an awareness of how we all are ensnared in this process of constructing/deconstructing oppression; thus personal and societal experiences of oppression and privilege are not easily separated. In order to shift toward a collaboratively oriented social justice, we must realize that focusing on one or multiple forms of oppression, but not all, cannot lead to true social justice change and transformation because all forms of oppression interact in a convoluted manner that reinforce or undermine each other in an entangled labyrinth.
Pritchard, G. (2010). Disabled people as culturally relevant teachers. Journal of Social Inclusion, 1
(1), 43-51. Retrieved from: http://www104.griffith.edu.au/index.php/
This paper contends that disabled teachers are in such short supply as to be invisible even amongst minority teachers from already vastly marginalised populations. This is not simply because discriminatory practices are embedded within employment policies of educational systems, but deeply held socio-cultural attitudes also prevent disabled people accessing and attaining basic and later, higher levels of academic achievement. The central argument here is a simple one; disabled people as teachers offer a unique knowledge standpoint, challenge the animosity of dominant cultural beliefs around disability as analogous with passivity or non-achieving, and provide a source of resistance, solace and resolution for students they teach. Disabled people as educators enact exemplary pedagogic justice and socially inclusive practice. The aim of this paper is to explore the benefits to students and places of higher education alike of embracing both the person and the role of the teacher with disability as culturally relevant educators.
Shelton, M. W., & Matthews, C. K. (2001). Extending the diversity agenda in forensics: Invisible disabilities and beyond. Argumentation and Advocacy, 38
Diversity issues have become a cornerstone of higher education, and forensic activities are certainly no exception to that rule. The forensic community has made remarkable progress with often socially marginalized demographic groups, particularly women and minorities. Perhaps the next logical step would be to consider other elements of that domain, such as those with invisible disabilities.
Smith, L., Foley, P. F., & Chaney, M. P. (2008). Addressing classism, ableism, and heterosexism in counselor education. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86
As the counseling profession charts its future course, issues related to classism, ableism, and heterosexism remain fully incorporated within the multicultural/social justice curriculum. The authors define each of these forms of oppression, explicate their intersections with race, and summarize the resulting implications for counseling education and training.
Stodden, R. A., Stodden, N. J., Kim-Rupnow, W. S., Thai, N.D., & Galloway, L. M. (2003). Providing effective support services for culturally and linguistically diverse persons with disabilities: Challenges and recommendations. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 18
This review examines the impact of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) persons of disability status upon the work of researchers, rehabilitation service providers, and postsecondary education instructors and support personnel. The increasingly disproportionate distribution of CLD persons with disabilities, and the inequitable treatment CLD people experience in receiving services, continues to challenge the disability research field, vocational rehabilitation system, and postsecondary institutions. Disability researchers, practitioners, instructors, and support personnel have not adequately understood the unique issues related to disability in CLD communities and, as a result, have failed in their relationship with CLD persons with disabilities. This review examines the barriers to this relationship which fall into three categories: (a) lack of cultural sensitivity and knowledge regarding CLD persons with disabilities; (b) failure to account for environmental determinants of disability, including natural, social, cultural, and built environments; and (c) inadequacy of current research methodology and approaches by service systems and postsecondary education as applied to CLD populations with disabilities. Recommendations to better relate to the needs of persons with disability in CLD communities are provided.
Walker, A. R., & Test, D. W. (2011, August). Using a self-advocacy intervention on African American college students’ ability to request academic accommodations. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26
Due to an increase in enrollment of African American students with disabilities in postsecondary education, there is a need to identify strategies that may lead to improved transition and self-advocacy skills for these students. These strategies include teaching students to request academic accommodations and to have an understanding of how their disability affects their academic learning. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide an in-depth explanation of a self-advocacy strategy that was used to teach three African American male college students how to request their academic accommodations. Results indicated this strategy may be a promising intervention for African American college students with disabilities.
Waldegrave Leake, D., Burgstahler, S., & Vreeberg Izzo, M. (2011). Promoting transition success for culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities: The value of mentoring. Creative Education, 2
Youth with disabilities are less likely to enroll in and complete postsecondary education programs and transition to employment than their non-disabled peers, and this is especially so for those from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. To help provide insight into factors influencing the transition process, a multi-site study was conducted using survey interviews, focus groups, and case studies, with a focus on CLD youth with disabilities. The importance of mentoring emerged as a consistent theme. Most participants cited informal mentors as role models and key motivators for gaining the social, academic, and career supports needed for success. They identified the relationships of individuals who served as mentors and what they did that helped them gain fresh perspectives and take steps toward personal, academic, and career goals. The insights gained from the research participants support greater use of mentoring to help this population.
Vidali, A. (2009). Rhetorical hiccups: Disability disclosure in letters of recommendation. Rhetoric Review, 28
This article positions letters of recommendation as important and troubling indicators of faculty beliefs about diversity and access in higher education. I focus on the disclosure of disability, both by examining the history of disclosing stigmatized difference and by analyzing five letters of recommendation for an aspiring graduate student with a traumatic brain injury. I suggest that faculty must revise their letter-writing practices and engage in a type of rhetorical forecasting that questions well-intentioned disclosures of difference and imagines how various letters form a composite sketch of a candidate.