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There is a large amount of information available about students with learning disabilities, dyslexia, and ADD/ADHD in higher education, and like many of the resources included in this bibliography, it may pertain to multiple categories.

Alden, P., & Hinckley, J. (2005, Fall). Women with attentional issues: Success in college
learning. Journal of Developmental Education, 29(1), 10-12, 14-17, 27.

This pilot study, funded from a 5-year grant from the U.S. Department of Education Title III Strengthening Institutions Program, explores the factors identified by women with AD/HD that are necessary to their achieving college success. The results of this study, based on 13 in-depth interviews with women who are both academically successful and have AD/HD, highlight the influence of motivation, attitude, support systems, self-reflection, and social-academic balance on academic success. The article concludes with implications that may help instructors and institutions better serve women with attentional issues in the college setting.
Allsopp. D. H., Minskoff, E. H., & Bolt, L. (2005, May). Individualized course-specific strategy instruction for college students with learning disabilities and ADHD: Lessons learned from a model demonstration project. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 20(2), 103–118.

This 3-year Model Demonstration Project involved the development and field testing of an individualized course-specific strategy instruction model with college students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The 46 participants received individualized semester-long strategy instruction by graduate students in special education. A variety of data sources were used to evaluate the implementation of the model as well as the academic success of students who received individualized strategy instruction. Quantitative analyses indicated that the group as a whole as well as the subset of students on probation and suspension significantly improved their grades and sustained this improvement over time. Qualitative analysis identified two factors related to improvement: independent use of strategies and the supportive nature of the strategy instructor–student relationship. Qualitative analysis also identified two factors related to nonimprovement: academic/cognitive skill deficits and emotional/medication-related issues. Implications of the model for postsecondary education and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Bacon, A. M., & Bennett, S. (in press). Dyslexia in Higher Education: The decision to study art. European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Increasing numbers of students in Higher Education (HE) have dyslexia and are particularly over represented in the visual and creative arts. While dyslexia has been associated with artistic talent, some applicants may perceive their academic opportunities as limited because of negative learning experiences associated with their dyslexia. This study explored how the qualitative lived experience of dyslexia was implicated in degree choice. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews with 13 arts students provided data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged which can be described under the broad headings: (1) Influence of school and family, (2) Dyslexia as a strength, (3) Having a passion for art. The data from eight students clearly suggested that they had actively chosen to study art because of a long standing interest and acknowledged talent. The others had perceived their academic options as otherwise limited. However, for all participants, studying and practising art had helped facilitate the development of a positive personal identity as an artist with dyslexia. We suggest this to be an important illustration of how access to HE can help individuals with dyslexia to achieve their potential.
Barber-Fendley, K., & Hamel, C. (2004, February). A new visibility: An argument for alternative assistance writing programs for students with learning disabilities. College Composition and Communication, 55(3), 504-535.

We argue against the metaphor of the "level playing field" and its natural coercive power; in so doing, we call for an end to the invisibility that the debate over accommodations has imposed on learning disabilities in the past decade. A literature review of LD in composition shows how this invisibility has manifested itself in our field through limited professional discussion of LD. In response, we propose not a level playing field but a new playing field altogether, a visible one that actively promotes alternative assistance for student writers with LD in first-year composition programs. We seek to show how the LD and composition fields could create a powerful partnership by serving students with LD through the principle of the liberal theory of distributive justice.
Barden, O. (in press). “…If we were cavemen we'd be fine”: Facebook as a catalyst for critical literacy learning by dyslexic sixth-form students. Literacy.

This article is derived from a study of the use of Facebook as an educational resource by five dyslexic students at a sixth form college in north-west England. Through a project in which teacher-researcher and student-participants co-constructed a group Facebook page about the students’ scaffolded research into dyslexia, the study examined the educational affordances of a digitally mediated social network. An innovative, flexible, experiential methodology combining action research and case study with an ethnographic approach was devised. This enabled the use of multiple mixed methods, capturing much of the rich complexity of the students’ online and offline interactions with each other and with digital media as they contributed to the group and co-constructed their group Facebook page. Social perspectives on dyslexia and multiliteracies were used to help interpret the students’ engagement with the social network and thereby deduce its educational potential. The research concludes that as a digitally mediated social network, Facebook engages the students in active, critical learning about and through literacies in a rich and complex semiotic domain. Offline dialogue plays a crucial role. This learning is reciprocally shaped by the students’ developing identities as both dyslexic students and able learners. The findings suggest that social media can have advantageous applications for literacy learning in the classroom. In prompting learning yet remaining unchanged by it, Facebook can be likened to a catalyst.
Baverstock, A. C., & Finlay F. (2003, May).Who manages the care of students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in higher education? Child: Care, Health and Development, 29(3), 163-166.

Objective: To identify who provides medical support to students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) while in higher education.

Methods: A questionnaire pack was sent to 50 undergraduate student health centres attached to higher education colleges/universities.

Results: Eighty-two per cent of practices returned questionnaires. Forty-nine per cent had undergraduate students with ADHD, of those 76% were on methylphenidate. Fifty-two per cent saw only their general practitioner (GP) for follow up and the rest were jointly managed by GP with: psychiatrists, paediatricians, psychologists or physicians. Eighty-seven per cent of GPs had not attended recent courses or training on ADHD.

Conclusion: Those caring for undergraduate students with ADHD are still largely unfamiliar with the condition. Guidelines need to be drawn up to establish handover from paediatric to adult care.
Beale, A. V. (2005, March). Preparing students with learning disabilities for postsecondary education: Their rights and responsibilities. Techniques Making Education and Career Connections, 80(3), 24-27.

In order to be successful, students with learning disabilities who are transitioning from high school to career-technical schools or two- and four-year colleges should secure appropriate academic adjustments at the postsecondary level, and that begins with knowing their rights and responsibilities. The article concludes that students who are aware of the accommodations they require and how to obtain them are better prepared to make well-informed decisions--decisions that, in turn, will enable them to compete successfully at the postsecondary level. A brief list of resources is included.
Boyle, R. A. (2006). Law students with attention deficit disorder: How to reach them, how to teach them. The John Marshall Law Review, 39(2), 349-383.

Most law school classes are likely to include students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or its related disorder - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is imperative for teachers to be equipped for teaching law students with ADD. To be effective in reaching those students, law professors should understand the common learning-style traits of ADD students. This article describes what researchers know about ADD and how it can impact learning. It summarizes empirical research and describes the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model. It also discusses federal statutes and court cases mandating individualized approaches to teaching students with learning disabilities. Finally, it recommends ways in which law professors can diversify their teaching methods to assist ADD students and their classmates.
Brown, S. (2009, January). Learning to read: Learning disabled post-secondary students talk back to special education. In L. G. Roman (Ed.), Disability Arts, Culture and Politics: New Epistemologies for Qualitative Research [Special Issue]. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22(1), 85-98.

This article reveals the findings of a participatory ethnography with post-secondary students enrolled in a large West Coast University in British Columbia who had previously been identified as 'learning disabled' and thus, the 'recipients' of special educational policy interventions. Instead of starting from the official meanings of the special education policy discourses, this study puts front and centre the meanings and experiences of the students themselves. It uncovers the performative work the students engage as they negotiate the contradictory ideologies of meritocracy and equal opportunity while living with the label and realities of various 'learning disabilities'. The students' discourses are read in relation to and against the dominant common-sense ideologies of special education. The study takes into account the students readings in light of their positionalities as racialized, classed, gendered, in addition to living with the label of learning disability. Contrary to the claim that meritocracy and equal opportunity are merely superimposed myths internalized by the students, the students' understandings demonstrate that both ideologies involve their active agency to claim 'abilities' and 'normalcy' as counter-hegemonic moments in relation to the larger special education and educational discourses that represent their learning disabilities as 'deficient'. The implications of this study shed light on how the discourses of students with learning disabilities may be used to read in transformative ways the schooling practices, policies and pedagogies. 'Normal' is not so stable and taken for granted after all. 'Ability' is as much a claim to agency and capacity for learning disabled students as it is for the non-disabled.
Buchanan, T., St. Charles, M., Rigler, M., & Hart, C. (2010). Why are older faculty members more accepting of students with Attention‐deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? A life‐course interpretation. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 57(4), 351-369.

The presence of university students in the United States with disabilities is not a new phenomenon. However, little is known about the attitudes of university faculty concerning less visible disabilities such as attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a sample of faculty at a university in the United States (n = 136), the impact of age on faculty’s acceptance of ADHD was examined. Results indicated a higher percentage of older faculty members, compared with middle‐aged and younger faculty, selected ADHD as a condition worthy of special instructional accommodations. Irrespective of age of the respondents, ADHD had the lowest acceptance as a condition deserving special accommodations. Finally, fewer middle‐aged and older faculty attributed difficulties experienced by a student with ADHD symptoms to “bad” character, a lack of discipline or a lack of motivation. These findings suggest more emphasis should be placed on disability‐related education and training for faculty members during early stages of their careers.
Cameron, H., & Nunkoosing, K. (2012). Lecturer perspectives on dyslexia and dyslexic students within one faculty at one university in England. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(3), 341-352.

The aim of this study was to explore lecturers' experiences with and perspectives on dyslexia and dyslexic students to inform the wider debate about the issues of dyslexia support in higher education. Data were collected and analysed using an abbreviated constructivist grounded theory method. Participants were categorised as ‘positive’, ‘neutral’ or ‘negative’ in attitude towards dyslexia and dyslexic students; and ‘active’, ‘passive’ or ‘resistant’ in approach to support for dyslexic students. Attitude was found to inform approach to support, and vice versa. Personal and meaningful experience with people who have the dyslexia label was identified as the catalyst for genuine interest in the challenges dyslexic students face at university, and as the stimulus for an active approach to support.
Capps, S. C., Henslee, A. M., & Gere, D. R. (2002). Learning disabilities within postsecondary education. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 1(3), 15-24.

Learning disabilities (LD) are a significant issue in the U.S. educational system and the fastest growing disability group in need of services at the postsecondary educational level. This growth has led to an increase in colleges and universities offering support services to the adult LD population. However, many students are still having difficulty remaining in college and completing degree programs. This difficulty may arise, in part, from confusion and misunderstanding among postsecondary professionals, including disability support coordinators and professors. The purpose of this article is to address some of the issues postsecondary educational staff and faculty members come across when dealing with the adult learning disabled population.
Chew, B. L., Jensen, S.A., & Rosen, L. A. (2009). College students' attitudes toward their ADHD peers. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13(3), 271-276.

Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made.

Results: For all participants, but especially for those with ADHD, more frequent contact with peers with ADHD was associated with more positive attitudes toward individuals with ADHD. Only half of individuals with ADHD report receiving adequate accommodations, and only half of those report actually using the available accommodations. Overall, more negative than positive adjectives were endorsed as describing individuals with ADHD, and this was especially true for individuals with ADHD in comparison to those without ADHD.

Conclusion: Contact with other individuals with ADHD may be especially important for college students with ADHD. 
Christensen, L. M. (2007). Law students who learn differently: A narrative case study of three law students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Journal of Law & Health, 21, 1-28. Retrieved from:

More law students than ever before begin law school having been diagnosed with a learning disability. As legal educators, do we have an obligation to expand our teaching methodologies beyond the typical law student? What teaching methodologies work most effectively for law students with learning disabilities? The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of law students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) about their law school experiences. The case study yielded four themes relating to the social, learning and achievement domains of the students. First, law students with ADD experienced feelings of isolation in law school. Second, the more successful law students with ADD understood their personal learning styles whereas the less successful student students did not. Third, the Socratic Method, as the predominant teaching methodology, inhibited students' learning in the classroom. Fourth, the students expressed feelings of uncertainly about their future careers as practicing lawyers with ADD. It is time for legal educators to welcome nontraditional learners into their classrooms. By seeking to create an environment of inclusion versus exclusion, by expanding our teaching methodologies and by recognizing the multitude of talents and skills our students possess, we can humanize the law school experience for everyone.
Collinson, C., Dunne, L., & Woolhouse, C. (in press). Re-visioning disability and dyslexia down the camera lens: Interpretations of representations on UK university websites and in a UK government guidance paper. Studies in Higher Education.

The focus of this article is to consider visual portrayals and representations of disability. The images selected for analysis came from online university prospectuses as well as a governmental guidance framework on the tuition of dyslexic students. Greater understanding, human rights and cultural change have been characteristic of much UK governmental policy regarding disability, and legislation has potentially strengthened the quest for equality of opportunity. However, publicly available institutional promotional visual material appears to contradict policy messages. To interrogate this contradiction, this article presents a tripartite critique whereby three researchers provide a self-inventory of their backgrounds and theoretical and ontological positioning, before presenting their differing interpretations of visual representations of disability. Following an agreed methodological and analytical framework, they addressed the question: what do visual representations of dyslexia and disability look like and what messages do they convey?
Collinson, C. & Penketh, C. (2010). ‘Sit in the corner and don’t eat the crayons’:
Postgraduates with dyslexia and the dominant ‘lexic’ discourse. Disability & Society, 25(1), 7-19.

The lack of cultural diversity in higher education is recognised by policy objectives and a current focus on the development of widening participation for a range of students, including those with disabilities. Amongst this group are those with dyslexia who might previously have been disenfranchised from formal education and under-represented within it. This paper explores the personal narratives and learner histories of six postgraduates and academics with dyslexia from their earliest memories of learning to their present experiences. It examines how literacy, as a dominant form of discourse, has defined concepts of academic ability resulting in the early exclusion of these learners from formal education. It is argued that this dominant discourse can be challenged by non-authorised, informal learning resulting in stories of resistance.
Connor, D. J. (in press). Actively navigating the transition into college: Narratives of students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education.

Students with learning disabilities (LD) are particularly vulnerable in making the school-to-college transition where they negotiate a complex constellation of challenges that include academic demands, social expectations, and emotional/personal growth. Although a substantial body of knowledge exists about college students with LD, it is largely predicated upon both extrinsic supports available to ensure a successful transition into college and ways to maintain that success. In contrast, intrinsic knowledge as the basis of agency exerted by individuals with LD to strategize for their own success has received comparatively little attention. This study uses narrative methodology guided by a theoretical framework of disability studies, to render three nuanced portraits of college students with LD. Participants demonstrate ways in which they manage to navigate the academic, social, and emotional/personal realms when transitioning into college. In doing so, they reveal instances of self-knowledge that are often hidden or overlooked, revealing numerous instances of agency.
Connor, D. J. (2009). Creating cartoons as representation: Visual narratives of college students with learning disabilities. Educational Media International, 46(3), 185-205.

Students with learning disabilities (LD) are the largest sub-group of all students with disabilities attending college in the United States. However, due to the multiple difficulties involved in transitioning from school to college, many do not succeed during their first year. This article chronicles ways in which three students with LD negotiate academic, social, and personal demands of college. The author-artist utilizes cartoons drawn to represent meaningful episodes within student experiences. By combining cartoons with personal narratives, participant testimonies reveal powerful ways in which students with LD strategize and self-advocate in order to survive their transition onto college. After highlighting the strengths and limitations of this approach, a case is made for the potential value of using cartoons for education research.
Cook, B. G., Gerber, M. M., & Murphy, J. (2000). Backlash against the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in higher education: Implications for transition from post-secondary environments to work. Work, 14(1), 31-40.

Individuals with learning disabilities (LD), the largest group of people with disabilities in the United States, are attending college in greater numbers than ever before. Post-secondary training is critical for individuals with LD to make successful transitions into a changing and ever more demanding world of work. Research indicating that college faculty are willing to provide requested accommodations to students with LD suggests that they are increasingly likely to experience successful post-secondary outcomes, and therefore improve their vocational prospects. However, college students with LD and the accommodations they receive have recently garnered some highly critical press. These portrayals may portend problems in higher education for students with LD, who must self-identify and make specific accommodation requests to faculty in order to receive the instruction and testing environments that they require to succeed. Efforts to ensure that the LD label is not ubiquitously applied and that college faculty attempt to separate the idea of merit from achievement and implement instructional practices to better meet the educational needs of students with and without LD are recommended.
Cox, D. H., & Klas, L. D. (1996). Students with learning disabilities in Canadian colleges and universities: A primer for service provision. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(1), 93-97. 

The authors, both of whom are involved in providing support services to university students with learning disabilities, describe some of the current issues and challenges faced by students, staff, and faculty. Programs and initiatives in some Canadian institutions that have proven to be successful are described, such as a sequential five-step procedure model that directed the delivery of services at the university. Resource and reference lists are also provided.
Davidovitch, N., Schacham, S., & Margalit, D. D. (2012). Coping with learning disabilities in academic institutions: Experience from Israel. International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 11(1), 45-49.

Background: The evolving awareness of learning disabilities (LDs) has been accompanied by a change in legislation, resulting in greater access to higher education by individuals with LDs, a group previously excluded from such educational options. The present study explored the accommodations granted in 2010 to students identified as having LDs at the Ariel University Center, based on a proposed typology of LD accommodations. We explored possible connections between claims for LD accommodations and demographic data such as accommodation type, country of birth, gender, faculty, and academic status.

Methods: The study population included 9021 students at the Ariel University Center of Samaria in 2010. The sample population comprises two groups: students diagnosed with LDs (n=941, 10.4%) and undiagnosed students (n=8080, 89.6%).

Results: Findings indicated a statistically significant correlation between faculty and LD accommodations. Of all accommodations, a time extension on exams was the most common.

Conclusions: We conclude that differences in the prevalence of LD accommodations may be traced to differences in students’ needs for such support. Based on the current ease with which accommodations are awarded, the potential implications of such accommodations for the entire student body, and the potential discrimination against non-diagnosed students, institutions should tighten institutional criteria for awarding accommodations to students diagnosed with LDs and should make the award of passive accommodations conditional upon student participation in active accommodations. Finally, a follow-up study is proposed to explore the associations between the type of accommodations granted to students and students’ academic achievements.
Davis, J. M., Takahashi, T., Shinoda, H., & Gregg, N. (2012). Cross-cultural comparison of ADHD symptoms among Japanese and US university students. International Journal of Psychology, 47(3), 203-210.

Problems related to attention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness are known to impact social, academic, and vocational success. When the problems begin in childhood and lead to impaired functioning, the syndrome is identified as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Symptoms of the syndrome persist into adolescence and adulthood for many individuals, but less is known about characteristics of adults compared to children, especially adults attending university. Furthermore, there is little cross-national and cross-cultural research. This study compared DSM-IV-TR ADHD symptoms of US university students (N = 271) to Japanese peers (N  = 712). Comparison of group means on a DSM-IV-TR-based checklist indicated that Japanese students reported more problems with inattention (and overall ADHD symptoms) but not hyperactive–impulsive symptoms. Although differences were statistically significant, effect sizes were small, indicating that for practical purposes, the students reported similar levels of symptoms. Japanese students reported higher rates of meeting or exceeding symptom counts that comprise diagnostic criteria for ADHD, but differences were quite small. Using DSM-IV-TR thresholds, 5.70% of US students and 6.27% of Japanese students reported enough symptoms to meet the cut-off for inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, or combined type during childhood. With regard to recent problems, 2.66% of US students and 4.52% of Japanese students reported enough symptoms to meet the cut-off for one of the three subtypes. Comparisons using other methods of calculating rates are also provided. This research adds to the limited knowledge of ADHD symptoms in university students across countries and it supports the view that ADHD is not merely a cultural construct. This study is among the first to identify potential attention problems in Japanese university students.
Denhart, H. (2008). Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(6), 483-497.

This phenomenological study investigated barriers to higher education faced by 11 college students labeled with learning disabilities (LD) using their voice as the primary data. Data were analyzed and interpreted through a disability theory perspective revealing barriers stemmed largely from external social causes rather than individual pathology. Barriers included being misunderstood by faculty, being reluctant to request accommodations for fear of invoking stigma, and having to work considerably longer hours than nonlabeled peers. Findings indicated barriers could be overcome through raising faculty awareness about LD issues, engaging the assistance of the college LD specialist, and participation in a LD democratic empowerment community on campus.
Dipeolu, A. O. (2011, October). College students with ADHD: Prescriptive concepts for best practices in career development. Journal of Career Development, 38(5), 408-427.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the second most endorsed disability among college populations today, totaling approximately 11%. ADHD causes significant problems in education and social and occupational functioning of college students as well as in their postcollege work environment. Although the literature is replete with information guiding service providers working with students in other areas, very few studies exist to help career counselors who work with college students with ADHD. This article attempts to fill the gap by highlighting (a) college and postcollege work implications of ADHD characteristics and (b) effective interventions that counselors can implement to buttress the career planning process and postcollege occupational success for students with ADHD.
Dipeolu, A., Reardon, R., Sampson, J., & Burkhead, J. (2002). The relationship between dysfunctional career thoughts and adjustment to disability in college students with learning disabilities. Journal of Career Assessment, 10(4), 413-427.

This study examined the relationship between dysfunctional career thoughts and adjustment to disability among college students with learning disabilities. Data were obtained from 153 college students with learning disabilities at a large southern university and 595 general college students from the normative sample of the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI). Results indicated that college students with learning disabilities had fewer dysfunctional career thoughts in general, less career decision-making confusion, and less commitment anxiety than the normative sample. However, students with learning disabilities had more dysfunctional career thoughts related to external conflict than the normative sample. A relationship was found among the CTI scores and the scores on the adapted Adjustment scale of the Reaction to Impairment and Disability Inventory. Findings indicated that as the prevalence of dysfunctional career thoughts decreased, the positive adjustment to learning disability increased.
Elliot, H. W., Arnold, E. M., Brenes, G. A., Silvia, L., & Rosenquist, P. B. (2007, July/August). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder accommodations for psychiatry residents. Academic Psychiatry, 31(4), 290–296. Retrieved from:

Objective: With the increase in diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, it is expected that more resident physicians will require accommodations so that their academic performance and clinical competency can be measured adequately. The authors provide an overview of the requirements and issues regarding the provision of ADHD accommodations for psychiatry resident physicians as well as recommendations regarding policy development in this area.

Method: The authors review the symptoms of ADHD, proper documentation of ADHD, and the rationale and legal basis for providing accommodations to resident physicians with ADHD.

Results: Executive functioning, attention, and affect regulation are three domains that could negatively affect the functioning of a resident physician with ADHD. Possible accommodations specific to each general competency are described.

Conclusions: In order to comply with existing guidelines, training programs should be proactive and have a procedure in place that 1) requires adequate documentation; 2) ensures confidentiality; 3) grants accommodations which measure core knowledge and not the limits of the disability; and 4) does not alter the core curriculum of the program.
Ferri, B. A., Gregg, N., & Heggoy, S. J. (1997, September/October). Profiles of college students demonstrating learning disabilities with and without giftedness. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(5), 552-559.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the assessment profiles of two groups of adults with learning disabilities. The first group comprised 48 adults (34 men and 14 women) demonstrating giftedness and a learning disability profile (G/LD). The second group of 46 adults (31 men and 15 women) demonstrated a learning disabled profile without giftedness (NG/LD). Both groups of participants were either attending or planning to attend college and sought testing at a university-affiliated learning disabilities center. Participants' mean age was 20 years, and all were White and from middle to upper-middle class backgrounds. Findings indicate that, as a group, the adults demonstrating a G/LD profile tended to be identified later and have more discrepancy among cognitive assessment profile scores than the NG/LD group. Cognitive subtest scores showed significant differences between the groups, but also several areas of weakness evident in both groups regardless of the presence of giftedness. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying the presence of learning disabilities among gifted populations.
Field, S., Sarver, M. D., & Shaw, S. F. (2003). Self-determination: A key to success in postsecondary education for students with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 24(6), 339-349.

Self-determination should be a central organizing concept in postsecondary programs for all students with disabilities, including those with learning disabilities. The importance of self-determination is supported by numerous studies, including one by Sarver (2000), who found a significant relationship between the grade point averages of students with learning disabilities and their levels of self-determination. Interviews with students about postsecondary environments demonstrate that specific environmental factors and personality markers are important to postsecondary success. Characteristics of environments that support self-determination are discussed within the context of postsecondary education settings. These characteristics include self-determined role models, self-determination skill instruction, opportunities for choice, positive communication patterns and relationships, and availability of supports. Universal Design for Instruction, a new paradigm for college students with learning disabilities, fosters self-determination by offering students productive opportunities for learning.
Foley, N. E. (2006, September). Preparing for college: Improving the odds for students with learning disabilities. College Student Journal, 40(3), 641-655.

Increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities are enrolling in colleges. Although, they may have met academic prerequisites, they still may find that they are unprepared. In addition to the many adjustments that all students must make, students with disabilities are faced with a major shift in the advocacy role. As K-12 students in special education, teachers, parents, counselors may have monitored their academic progress. Upon graduation from high school, however, the student must assume responsibility for getting their academic needs met. They must demonstrate an array of nonintellectual skills and attributes in the process of self-identifying as having a disability, describing the nature of their disability and its impact on their learning, and suggesting effective accommodations.
Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Glutting, J. J., & Watkins, M. W. (2007). ADHD and achievement: Meta-analysis of the child, adolescent, and adult literatures and a concomitant study with college students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(1), 49-65.

This article presents results from two interrelated studies. The first study conducted a meta-analysis of the published literature since 1990 to determine the magnitude of achievement problems associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effect sizes were significantly different between participants with and without ADHD (sample weighted r = .32, sample weighted d = . 71; p = .001). Effects were also examined according to the moderators of age, gender, achievement domain (reading, math, spelling), measurement method (standardized tests vs. grades, parent/teacher ratings, etc.), sample type (clinical vs. nonclinical), and system used to identify ADHD (DSM-III-R vs. DSM-IV). Significant differences emerged from the moderator comparisons. The second study, using averaged effect sizes from the first study as a baseline for comparison, investigated achievement levels for an understudied age group with ADHD, namely, college students. Unlike previous studies at the college level, the sample incorporated both student and parent ratings (N = 380 dyads). The results were comparable to outcomes from the meta-analysis for college students and adults. Analyses demonstrated modest (R = .21) but meaningful predictive validity across 1 year to end-of-first-year grades. However, unlike earlier studies with children and adolescents, student ratings were as predictive as parent ratings. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of moderator variables on ADHD and achievement.
French, J., & Herrington, M. (2008). Theorising dyslexic student discussion/action groups in UK higher education: Research in practice. Educational Action Research, 16(4), 517-530.

This research in practice analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing ‘support groups’ to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context which required higher education institutions to involve disabled students in creating practices which promote equality. The students in these particular groups learned more about their own dyslexia and about dyslexia in general. They also learned about processes of institutional change and devised actual changes in systems and practices. They provided new descriptions about dyslexia in higher education which could be used within staff development processes. The significance of these developments can be recognized with the help of current theories about learning as a situated social activity, about academic literacies as social practice and about social models of disability.
Getzel, E. E., McManus, S., & Briel, L. W. (2004). An effective model for college students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorders. Research to Practice Brief, 3(1). Minneapolis: The National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET). Retrieved from:

College students with learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders who participate in the Virginia Commonwealth University Supported Education Model tend to stay in school and progress in their educational programs, according to a study conducted by the Virginia Commonwealth University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Workplace Supports. This brief describes the VCU Supported Education Model and results of the study.
Granger, D. (2010). A tribute to my dyslexic body, as I travel in the form of a ghost. In D. J. Connor & B. A. Ferri (Eds.), Learning Disabilities [Special Issue]. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from  

In schooling structures concerned with a mind/body divide, various intelligences and voices are pathologized. There is a plethora of knowledge that tells a powerful fiction about how we are unable to learn. Unfortunately, this fairy-tale is not experienced as fiction but as truth. Sometimes I slip between the two, where ghostly forms thrive, where we can begin work to recognize the potential in dyslexic ways of knowing (Gordon 1997, p. 38). It is only after we begin to recognize these hauntings that we can begin to imagine how the category of learning disability is a political one. Ultimately, I hope to make visible the narrowness in the ideal academic body, and open up new potentials for sensual (sense-making) embodied academic labor.
Hadley, W. M. (2006, Winter). L.D. students' access to higher education: Self-advocacy and support. Journal of Developmental Education, 30(2), 10-15.

Increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities are entering post-secondary education. While in high school, students with a learning disability are assured services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This legislation, however, does not apply to colleges and universities. This qualitative study applied psychosocial theorist Arthur Chickering's (1969) vectors of student development theory to examine how traditional-age, 1st-year college students with learning disabilities adjusted to academic expectations as they moved from a sheltered secondary environment to a less monitored collegiate environment. The importance of students with learning disabilities self-advocating with their professors and the importance of their professors' support of their academic needs were major findings of this study.
Harris, R., & Robertson, J. (2001). Successful strategies for college-bound students with learning disabilities. Preventing School Failure, 45(3), 125-131.

Harris and Robertson address teachers and parents who prepare students who are learning disabled, or have attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactive disorder, for postsecondary training or education. By having a better understanding of typical practice in postsecondary settings, parents and K-12 personnel can use this information as a "template" to prepare students for academic work beyond high school. 

Harrison, A. G. (Ed.). (2012, March). Assessment and Accommodation of Students with Learning Disabilities at the Postsecondary Level in Canada: A Special Issue for Psychologists in Education [Special Issue]. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 27(1).

“This special issue of the Canadian Journal of School Psychology is devoted to examining current diagnostic practices in Canada and also the practices related to accommodating students with learning disabilities (LD) at the postsecondary level. Furthermore, we gathered expert opinions regarding the duty to accommodate students with LD and when such accommodations may not be required. Our aim was to gather current information and research regarding practices in Canada in order to assist psychological practitioners who conduct LD assessments and to provide empirically based information to inform best practice in this area of clinical activity” (pp. 3-4).

Articles in this special issue include:

  • Easier Said Than Done: Operationalizing the Diagnosis of Learning Disability for Use at the Postsecondary Level in Canada
  • A Model to Guide the Conceptualization, Assessment, and Diagnosis of Nonverbal Learning Disorder 
  • Why We Need Reliable, Valid, and Appropriate Learning Disability Assessments: The Perspective of a Postsecondary Disability Service Provider
  • Beyond Psychometric Evaluation of the Student—Task Determinants of Accommodation: Why Students With Learning Disabilities May Not Need to Be Accommodated
  • Assistive Technology Use by Students With LD in Postsecondary Education: A Case of Application Before Investigation?
  • The Importance of Symptom Validity Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Undergoing Assessments for Learning or Attention Difficulties


Hartman-Hall, H. M., & Haaga, D. A. F. (2002). College students' willingness to seek help for their learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(4), 263-274.

Eighty-six university students with learning disabilities (LDs) completed measures of self-esteem and of perceptions of their LDs. In addition, they rated their willingness to seek help from academic services in response to two experimental manipulations: (a) they read vignettes about a student requesting help from professors or peers and receiving positive or negative reactions; and (b) they listened to audiotaped radio advertisements for academic services on a college campus, emphasizing either learning or performance goals. Participants reported the most willingness to seek help after reading about a positive reaction from a professor and the least willingness to seek help after reading about a negative reaction from a professor. In a nonsignificant trend, participants were more willing to seek help after hearing the ad emphasizing performance goals, such as improved grades. Students who viewed their LDs as more stigmatizing, nonmodifiable, and global were less likely to report a willingness to seek help in response to negative situations and had lower overall self-esteem. These results suggest that learning services departments could bolster use of academic support by (a) intervening with faculty to try to prevent negative reactions to requests for accommodations and (b) attempting to destigmatize LDs among students themselves.
Hatzes, N. M., Reiff, H. B., & Bramel, M. H. (2002). The documentation dilemma: Access and accommodations for postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 27(3), 37-52.

Seventy-three disability service providers representing colleges and universities across the United States completed an informal, online survey focusing on institutional guidelines for documentation of learning disabilities. Most institutions reported having documentation guidelines that were adapted from those published by the Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD). However, respondents indicated that documentation is most often rejected because it is not current and does not meet other institutional guidelines. When making accommodation decisions, respondents reported using a combination of sources including recommendations in the documentation, professional judgment, and discussion with students. Such information should help secondary school personnel, disability service providers, and consumers understand the critical role that documentation plays in the process used by colleges and universities to make eligibility and accommodation decisions.
Heiman, T., & Kariv, D. (2004, Winter). Manifestations of learning disabilities in university students: Implications for coping and adjustment. Education, 125(2), 313-324.

The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of students' perception of their difficulties and adjustments during university studies as compared with their past perceptions, to examine their coping and expectations, and draw some implications from the research to help students with LD in institutions of higher education. Studies of adult students mainly describe their difficulties in three domains: academic, behavioral and emotional. Following in-depth interviews with 30 students, We attempted to elicit the experience of disability from their perspective. Students described their difficulties, the ways they cope, how they view their future and their adjustments while studying in the university. Results indicated significantly fewer dependence on private lessons, improved their learning strategies, more use of special accommodations and more positive emotional functioning and reduced negative self-perception in adult students. The contribution of this study is in showing the different perception of past and present difficulties and modes of coping, suggesting that although the academic obstacles do not change over time, the students learn to adjust to academic demands by adopting effective coping strategies, developing emotional resiliency, and through self-encouragement regarding an optimist future.
Hersey, A., Hughes, M., & Timmerman, L. (2012, April 13). Optimizing the collegiate experience of learning disabled students [Paper 195]. Paper presented at 11th Annual Celebration for Undergraduate Research and Creative Performance, Hope College, Holland, MI. Retrieved from:

In the U.S., only 3.6% of Learning Disabled (LD) college students graduate, while 62.1% of nondisabled students graduate. The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) can help increase the number of LD students graduating from a college or university. Universal Design for Learning is a call to institutions to support students in a variety of ways as they to strive to achieve their unique goals. When it comes to LD students, this means helping students set their goals and develop strategies for meeting them; insuring that professors acknowledge LD students and provide clarification or additional resources when necessary; increasing campus-wide awareness about learning disabilities; and providing appropriate accommodations (extended test-times, note-taking services, tutoring and other forms of academic support, etc.).
Holmes, A., & Silvestri, R. (2012, March). Assistive technology use by students with LD in postsecondary education: A case of application before investigation? Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 27(1), 81-97.

An increasing number of students with Learning Disabilities (LD) are enrolling in postsecondary education (PSE). Assistive technology (AT) is often provided to these students to circumvent academic deficits. This article will focus on research at the PSE level and students with LD to (a) identify AT service delivery practices, (b) describe the most frequently used ATs, (c) review research on the efficacy of AT to circumvent academic deficits, and (d) provide suggestions for future research on AT efficacy and for formulation of recommendations within psychoeducational reports. The use of AT by PSE students with LD appears to have moved ahead of research, proving or even testing the effectiveness of ATs in supporting the learning needs of this population.
Houck, C. K., Asselin, S. B., Troutman, G. C., & Arrington, J. M. (1992). Students with learning disabilities in the university environment: A study of faculty and student perceptions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(10), 678-684.

This study examines faculty and student perceptions regarding university students with learning disabilities, sensitivity to such students' special needs, accommodations, and the perceived impact of a learning disability. Results reveal a general sensitivity to the special needs of students with learning disabilities; however, group differences suggest several areas warranting further attention.
Humphrey, M. J. B. (2010). The relationship of self-determination skills, use of accommodations, and use of services to academic success in undergraduate juniors and seniors with learning disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Counseling and Personnel Services, University of Maryland. Retrieved from:

Students with disabilities are entering colleges and universities across the nation in ever-increasing numbers, with the greatest percentage being students with learning disabilities (LD). Yet, students with disabilities often do not graduate from college at the same rate as students without disabilities. Self-determination is an important skill for students to possess as they navigate a more complex academic environment in which they are required to make decisions independently. Having effective services for students with LD is crucial to their academic success. Students with LD were recruited through College and University contacts maintained by the student disability offices. Seventy students from eight institutions (all 4-year institutions, which included four independent colleges and four state universities), responded to an online survey, completing measures about their grade point average (GPA), use of accommodations, use of related services, and their skills as measured by the Self-Determination Student Scale. Results indicated that there was a significant, positive relationship between self-determination and GPA, such that self-determination reliably predicted GPA in this sample. However, no relationship was found between use of accommodations and GPA or between use of services and GPA, as many students reported selectively utilizing accommodations and services, which was interpreted to indicate developing self-determination. Recommendations for how campus disability offices might assist students in the development of self-determination skills are discussed and implications for future research academic success are presented.
Ihori, D. K. (2012, May). Postsecondary faculty attitudes, beliefs, practices, and knowledge regarding students with ADHD: A comparative analysis of two-year and four-year institutions. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, USC Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from

Understanding the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of postsecondary faculty regarding students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the laws that protect such students is critical for both student success and compliance with federal laws. The purpose of the present quantitative study was to identify differences between two-year community college and four-year university faculty in regard to their attitudes and beliefs about students with ADHD, their willingness to accommodate such students, and their knowledge of the legal protections for students with disabilities. In order to gain this information, electronic surveys were distributed to faculty members at two two-year community colleges, two four-year public universities, and two four-year private universities. The data was analyzed to determine whether significant differences in faculty responses exist between two-year colleges and four-year universities. Further analysis was conducted in order to determine whether differences exist between faculty responses at private four-year universities and public four-year universities. The results of the analyses indicate that no significant differences exist between types of universities in regard to faculty attitudes and beliefs about students with ADHD, their willingness to accommodate such students, and their knowledge of the legal protections for students with disabilities. However, additional analyses of the survey results beyond the scope of the research questions indicate that further professional development may be needed across postsecondary institutions regarding Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, appropriate accommodations for students with ADHD, and referral processes for students with ADHD to obtain educational accommodations.
Ingram, A., Pianu, E., & Welsh, R. (2007). Supporting dyslexic Scottish university hospitality students: Positive actions for the future? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(7), 606-611.

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore the issues of dyslexia and the management of learning support within two Scottish suppliers of premier HE hospitality education: Napier and QMU universities of Edinburgh.

Design/methodology/approach – This exploratory, qualitative fieldwork outlines course managers’, teachers’ and disabilities support staff perceptions of dyslexia support. Students’ views are noted, not interviewed. The paper describes the views of 12 of a sample of (eight female and four male) staff interviewees. Napier University and Queen Margaret University are post-1990 “new” universities; Napier has a larger student/staff population than QMU.

Findings – The emergent findings in this paper highlight the fact that managers, teachers and support staff operate an under-resourced and largely ad hoc system of dyslexic support, although Napier, with greater central funding, shows signs of more strategic insight with the appointment of a full-time dyslexia coordinator with strategic potential. The findings pinpoint the strengths (personal attention) of decentralised support with ambiguity problems and the need for a generic centrally coordinated support system capable of codifying tacit experience into customised support packages for hospitality students.

Research limitations/implications – The paper is a small exploratory study of the views and perceptions of dyslexia of course managers’, hospitality teachers’ and support staff from two of Edinburgh’s new universities. Both have decades of internationally respected work in hospitality education and elsewhere in higher education.

Practical implications – The fieldwork draws attention to this situation and suggests ways to make concepts of dyslexia and disability more relevant to academic hospitality managers teaching in higher education and to those practising in the field.

Originality/value – The paper examines the proposition that, while dyslexia is a condition open to support and improvement, it is for many practitioners a vague concept. What emerges from the interviews is that disability and what to do about it seems to be an attitude of mind, a question of perceptions, frames of references, intangible properties: that the essence of enhanced dyslexic support is how to do things better. Napier and QMU give valuable ad hoc examples here on which to design future practice. What is needed is a systematic approach to design, implementation and sustainability, and an understanding of the tacitly held knowledge that underpins experience-generated systems of knowledge. Bringing out such tacit and explicit notions of the complexity of perceptions of knowledge lies in future studies.
Janiga, S. J., & Costenbader, V. (2002, September/October). The transition from high school to postsecondary education for students with learning disabilities: A survey of college service coordinators. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(5), 463-470.

Federal legislation requires that students with disabilities receive services to assist them in the transition from high school to postsecondary life. Transition services must address students' understanding of their disability, learning strengths and weaknesses, career decision—making skills, and preparation for the increased demands of postsecondary education. This study surveyed coordinators of special services for students with disabilities at 74 colleges and universities in New York State. Respondents provided their perceptions of how well the students they served had been prepared by the transition services they had received in high school. Overall, little satisfaction with transition services was expressed. Respondents were most satisfied with high schools' provision of updated evaluations for students prior to enrollment in college, and they rated students' preparation for self-advocacy as the greatest weakness of current transition services.
Janusis, G. M., & Weyandt, L. L. (2010, November). An exploratory study of substance use and misuse among college students with and without ADHD and other disabilities. Journal of Attention Disorders, 14(3), 205-215.

Objective: The present study investigated potential differences between college students with and without disabilities (including ADHD, Asperger’s syndrome, executive functioning disorder, and learning, mental health, vision, hearing, and physical/chronic disabilities) regarding self-reported substance use and misuse, perceived stress, and sensation seeking.

Method: Students responded to a Stimulant Survey Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), and items from the National College Health Assessment (NCHA). 

Results: The hypotheses were part supported as MANOVA results revealed that students with disabilities provided significantly lower ratings on the SSS and also reported lower alcohol and marijuana use. Students with ADHD were more likely to use or misuse prescription stimulant medication but were less likely to use alcohol than did students without ADHD.

Conclusion: Students with disabilities compared to those without disabilities differed on levels of sensation seeking and alcohol and marijuana use.
Johnson, G., Zascavage, V., & Gerber, S. (2003). Junior college experience and students with learning disabilities: Implications for success at the four year university. College Student Journal, 42(4), 1162-1168.

There are an increasing number of students with learning disabilities attending college. Several factors and programs have been suggested as helpful to the success of students with learning disabilities in the college setting. One of the factors which has been suggested to be helpful is attendance at a two year or junior college. Little research has been done however to support the claims that attendance at a two-year college increases the success of students with learning disabilities. This study looked at the success of 84 students at a four-year college, 50 who had previously attended junior college and 34 who had not. Although there was no significant difference in GPAs earned, students who had previously attended a two-year college were more likely to graduate than students who had not attended a two-year college.
Kane, S. T., Walker, J., & Schmidt, G. (2011, November/December). Assessing college-level learning difficulties and "at riskness" for learning disabilities and ADHD: Development and validation of the learning difficulties assessment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(6), 533-542.

This article describes the development and validation of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and web-based survey that assesses perceived difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. The LDA is designed to (a) map individual learning strengths and weaknesses, (b) provide users with a comparative sense of their academic skills, (c) integrate research in user-interface design to assist those with reading and learning challenges, and (d) identify individuals who may be at risk for learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and who should thus be further assessed. Data from a large-scale 5-year study describing the instrument's validity as a screening tool for learning disabilities and ADHD are presented. This article also describes unique characteristics of the LDA including its user-interface design, normative characteristics, and use as a no-cost screening tool for identifying college students at risk for learning disorders and ADHD.
Kellner, L. A. & Freden, L. (2006). “If they could see me now!”: College students reflect on their experiences as special education students in the K-12 system. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 2(1), 58-76.

The current study examined the experiences of six students with learning disabilities in a four-year public, liberal arts college and discusses the meaning they attributed to their previous identification as special education students while in the K-12 system. Data was gathered through a semi-structured interview, questionnaire, and a sentence stem structure. A qualitative approach was used and results were analyzed using principles of content analysis. Themes emerging as noteworthy were: (a) the effect on relationships with peers, (b) lack of developmental knowledge by school support staff, (c) family support, and (d) the challenges of upholding expectations.
Kirby, J. R., Silvestri, R., Allingham, B. H., Parrila, R., & La Fave, C. B. (2008). Learning strategies and study approaches of postsecondary students with dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(1), 85-96.

The present study describes the self-reported learning strategies and study approaches of college and university students with and without dyslexia and examines the relationship of those characteristics with reading ability. Students with (n = 36) and without (n = 66) dyslexia completed tests measuring reading rate, reading comprehension, reading history, learning strategies, and learning approaches. The results indicated that students without dyslexia obtained significantly higher scores than students with dyslexia in their reported use of selecting main ideas and test taking strategies. Students with dyslexia reported significantly greater use of study aids and time management strategies in comparison to students without dyslexia. Moreover, university students with dyslexia were significantly more likely to report a deep approach to learning in comparison to university students without dyslexia. Reading ability correlated positively with selecting main ideas and test taking strategies and negatively with use of study aids. The authors interpret the learning strategy results as consequences of and compensations for the difficulties that students with dyslexia have in word reading.
Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., Lynch, S. L., & Rajani, S. (2008, August). Procrastination and motivation of undergraduates with learning disabilities: A mixed-methods inquiry. Learning Disabilities Research Practice, 23(3), 137-147. 

The purpose of this mixed-methods article was to report two studies exploring the relationships between academic procrastination and motivation in 208 undergraduates with (n= 101) and without (n= 107) learning disabilities (LD). In Study 1, the results from self-report surveys found that individuals with LD reported significantly higher levels of procrastination, coupled with lower levels of metacognitive self-regulation and self-efficacy for self-regulation than those without LD. Procrastination was most strongly (inversely) related to self-efficacy for self-regulation for both groups, and the set of motivation variables reliably predicted group membership with regard to LD status. In Study 2, individual interviews with 12 students with LD resulted in five themes: LD-related problems, self-beliefs and procrastination, outcomes of procrastination, antecedents of procrastination, and support systems. The article concludes with an integration of quantitative and qualitative results, with attention paid to implications for service providers working with undergraduates with LD.
Konald, T. R., & Glutting, J. J. (2008, September/October). ADHD and method variance: A latent variable approach applied to a nationally representative sample of college freshmen. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(5), 405-416.

This study employed a correlated trait—correlated method application of confirmatory factor analysis to disentangle trait and method variance from measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder obtained at the college level. The two trait factors were Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition (DSM—IV ) Inattention and DSM—IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity. The two source factors were self-reports and parent-reports. Data were collected for an epidemiological sample (N = 1,079) of college freshmen stratified for race/ethnicity, gender, and ability level according to national targets for the U.S. college population. Results revealed (a) parents' ratings were better measures of internalizing behavioral dimensions and that students' ratings were better measures of externalizing dimensions of behavior, (b) informants have a greater impact on behavior ratings than the behavioral construct that is presumed to be the primary cause of the behavior as measured by the CARE, (c) relationships among the method factors revealed a substantial amount of unique variance among informants, and (d) relationships among trait factors were largely within expectation.
Lee, D. H., Oakland, T., Jackson, G., & Glutting, J. (2008). Estimated prevalence of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms among college freshmen: Gender, race, and rater effects. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(4), 371-384.

Group differences and prevalence rates for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a matched sample of college freshmen (n = 956) and their parents (n = 956) were investigated for gender and race (African American and Caucasian) effects using current self-report and retrospective parent-report ratings. On self-report, compared to female students, male students displayed higher mean scores on subscales and lower rates for reporting symptom totals beyond DSM—IV thresholds for the three subtypes of ADHD. Mean differences in ADHD symptoms were not apparent for race. However, African American students displayed higher rates for reporting symptom totals beyond DSM—IV thresholds for all subtypes. On retrospective parent report, male students and Caucasian students displayed higher mean scores on all scales and higher rates for reporting symptom totals beyond DSM—IV thresholds for all subtypes. Prevalence rates varied by gender and race on self-report and parent report. Prevalence was examined based on combined data of self-report and parent report and using age-adjusted cutoff criteria. Findings and implications are discussed. 
Lerner, C. S. (2004, April). “Accommodations” for the learning disabled: A level playing field or affirmative action for elites? Vanderbilt Law Review, 57(3), 1043-1124. Retrieved from:

“This article evaluates the legal and political efforts to accommodate the learning disabled in American higher education generally, and in particular on the mental aptitude exams, such as the SATs, which are used by universities to select students. `Accommodations’ are said to level the playing field among test takers, allowing bright students to demonstrate their true academic potential” (p. 1045). 
Li, H., & Hamel, C. M. (2003) Writing issues in college students with learning disabilities: A synthesis of the literature from 1990 to 2000. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26(1), 29-46. 

This article provides a synthesis of the literature published from 1990 to 2000 on college students with learning disabilities and writing difficulties (LD/WD). Thirty-eight articles met the criteria for describing writing difficulties in this cohort of students. Upon reviewing the articles, four major topics emerged: (a) assistive technology for college students with LD/WD; (b) effectiveness of assistive technology for college students with LD/WD; (c) characteristics and error patterns in the writings of college students with LD/WD; and (d) instructional support and methods. The review of the literature shows that there is an urgent need for empirical studies, especially on instructional methods and strategies. Recommendations for future research are presented.
Lindstrom, J. H. (2007). Determining appropriate accommodations for postsecondary students with reading and written expression disorders. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(4), 229-236.

One of the most significant barriers facing postsecondary students with reading and written expression disorders who are eligible to receive specific accommodations is the lack of professional knowledge pertaining to issues surrounding accommodations. Though guided by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act, the process by which accommodation decisions are made varies considerably across institutions of higher education. Given the recent rise in litigation surrounding the practice of how accommodations are determined as well as the increasing number of postsecondary students with reading and writing disabilities who are requesting accommodations, it is imperative that accommodation decisions be defensible and supported by empirical research. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of current research on the effectiveness of accommodations for postsecondary students with language-based learning disabilities, discuss important considerations in the accommodation selection process, and offer recommendations for future research.
Loe, M., & Cuttino, L. (2008). Grappling with the medicated self: The case of ADHD college students. Symbolic Interaction, 31(3), 303-323.

Drawing on interview data, this article is a case study of the "medicated self." Specifically, we analyze how ADHD-diagnosed college students construct how they are shaped by the behavioral effects of medicine. Students may perceive that pharmaceutical enhancement is necessary in the context of a competitive academic ethic. In this context something akin to Lareau's concept of concerted cultivation thrives as students practice what we call concerted medicalization in an attempt to literally embody the academic ideal. However, while medicine may enable students to manage academic performance and take control of "disordered bodies," many remain uneasy about the extent to which they feel controlled by a drug. In the context of medical ambivalence, ADHD students engage in reflexive identity management and strategic pharmaceutical use to achieve some semblance of self-control and self-preservation during their college years. As their college education comes to a close, many prepare to return to what they construct as their "authentic," nonmedicated selves as they enter the work world.
Lovett, B. J., & Sparks, R. L. (2010, January). Exploring the diagnosis of “Gifted/LD”: Characterizing postsecondary students with learning disability diagnoses at different IQ levels. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(2), 91-101.

Increasing numbers of students are being diagnosed as simultaneously gifted and having a learning disability, although the identification procedures and characteristics of these students are matters of continuing debate. In the present study, postsecondary students with learning disability diagnoses (N = 357) were grouped according to their IQ scores, and the groups’ cognitive and achievement characteristics were explored, with special attention to the proportions of each group that would meet various objective criteria for learning disability diagnosis. Many students in each group failed to meet any of the criteria, although higher IQ students were more likely to meet most of the criteria. In addition, the higher IQ group exhibited higher achievement scores than did the lower IQ group, although the achievement gaps were much smaller than the IQ differences. Implications for the validity of the gifted/LD category as well as future research directions are discussed.
Luna, C. (2003). (Re)writing the discourses of schooling and of "learning disabilities": The development of critical literacy in a student action group. In D. Landis & E. B. Moje (Eds.), (Re)reading Students’ Difficulties with Reading and Writing [Special Issue]. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19(3), 253-380.

This article offers an empirical example of the development of critical literacy and suggests ways to redefine reading/literacy curricula to foster this type of literacy. Drawn from a study of the experiences of learning disabled-labeled undergraduates at an Ivy League university, this piece clarifies the concept of critical literacy and its development through an examination of the evolving language practices of a student action group called HEAL (Helping to Educate about Alternative Learning). HEAL group members used their experiences as a basis for collectively critiquing the dominant discourses of schooling and of the learning disabilities field and for creating a more positive alternative discourse about learning diversity. The author traces the development of critical literacy in this group and suggests conditions to support the development of critical literacy in K-16 classrooms.
Luna, C. (2009). 'But how can those students make it here?': Examining the institutional discourse about what it means to be 'LD' at an Ivy League university. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(2), 157-178.

In this paper, I examine and critique the construction of 'learning disabilities' at an Ivy League university in the USA. Drawn from a study of the experiences of learning disabled labelled Ivy undergraduates, this paper focuses on the language practices, assumptions, and power relationships that characterize the University discourse within and against which these diverse learners shape their educational lives and identities. Using discourse analysis techniques, I analyse University policies and practices to illuminate the complex, disempowering discourse about what it means to be 'LD' at the University. I conclude with possibilities for constructing an alternative discourse about learning diversity.
Madaus, J. W. (2005, January/February). Navigating the college transition maze: A guide for students with learning disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 37(3), 32-38.

Madaus describes the multiple challenges that go beyond those faced in high school when a student with learning disability goes to a postsecondary setting. The differences between high school and postsecondary settings are described along with several common misconceptions. Details of the discussion are presented.
Madaus, J. W. (2008). Employment self-disclosure rates and rationales of university graduates with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(4), 291-299.

Five hundred graduates with learning disabilities (LD) from three universities in the United States completed a survey related to their postschool employment outcomes and experiences. The present study presents data related to their decisions regarding LD disclosure in employment settings. Although 73% of the respondents reported that the LD affected their job in some way, only 55% reported self-disclosing, and only 12% reported requesting accommodations. Specific reasons for each of these decisions are presented, as are areas in which LD affect work, strategies for dealing with LD in the workplace, and perceptions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Implications for secondary and postsecondary programs are discussed.
Madaus, J. W., Banerjee, M., & Hamblet, E. C. (2010, August). Learning disability documentation decision making at the postsecondary level. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 33(2), 68-79.

Students with learning disabilities (LD) transitioning from secondary school to postsecondary education must submit documentation verifying the existence of a disability and that describes a current and substantial limitation to learning. Preparing acceptable documentation can be a challenge for secondary personnel because of differing laws at the secondary and postsecondary levels and because of variation in the type of data required by each school. This study presents the results of a survey of 183 postsecondary disability service providers related to frequently required components of LD documentation. Although a clear diagnosis of LD was required by most respondents, there was variation in regard to other key components. Implications and suggestions for secondary transition practice are presented.
Madaus, J. W., Foley, T. E., McGuire, J. M., & Ruban, L. M. (2002). Employment self-disclosure of postsecondary graduates with learning disabilities: Rates and rationales. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(4), 364-369.

One hundred thirty-two graduates with learning disabilities (LD) of a large, public, competitive postsecondary institution were surveyed to determine if they had self-disclosed their LD to their current employer and to provide the reasons for choosing to self-disclose or not to self-disclose. Based on a response rate of 67.4% (n = 89), the results indicated that 86.5% of the respondents were employed full time. Although nearly 90% of the respondents stated that their LD affected their work in some way, only 30.3% self-disclosed to their employer. Of those who had not self-disclosed, the majority reported that there was no reason or need to self-disclose. However, 46.1% reported not self-disclosing due to fear of a potentially negative impact in the workplace or due to a concern for job security. Specific rationales for disclosure and information related to the use of self-reported accommodations and strategies are presented.
Madaus, J. W., Zhao, J., & Ruban, L. (2008). Employment satisfaction of university graduates with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 29(6), 323-332.

Because of its significant impact on overall life satisfaction, employment satisfaction is one marker for determining successful adult outcomes. The present investigation reports the perceptions of employment satisfaction for 500 graduates with learning disabilities from three postsecondary institutions. The graduates reported high levels of employment satisfaction as well as high levels of employment self-efficacy. Factors that contribute to these judgments of employment satisfaction were examined. Perceptions of employment self-efficacy were found to be a more important predictor of employment satisfaction than variables such as salary and length of time on the job. Implications are discussed in regard to transition planning for students with learning disabilities at the secondary and postsecondary levels.
McCleary-Jones, V. (2007). Learning disabilities in the community college and the role of disability services departments. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 14(1), 43-47.

The community college offers educational opportunities to a diverse population of students. Many of the students attending the community college are considered non-traditional, and have numerous factors not faced by traditional-age students that can affect retention in this population. Learning disabled (LD) students attend the community college at a higher rate than other higher education institutions (Barnett, 1996; Bigaj, 1995; & Henderson, 1992). The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) reported that LDs now constitute the largest single category of disability served by disability service offices in the community colleges (Barnett, 1992). Accommodations are set up by the Disability Support Services Departments, and it is the Disability Services offered by the college that can be the deciding factor for the student regarding the choice of institution (Cocchi, 1997). A trend for the future involves many students who attend the community college self-identifying as being learning disabled and requesting accommodation. Faculty, staff, and administrators in the community college will need to be very familiar with legislation that impacts the rights and availability of services for LD students.
McGahee, D. W. (2012, November). Post-secondary transition of students with learning disabilities…A policy brief. Journal of Education Policy, Planning and Administration, 2(1), 64-75. Retrieved from

Students with learning disabilities are the fastest growing population in higher education. Several federal laws contain provisions that have stimulated the increase in attendance of students with learning disabilities in higher learning. Still, post-secondary outcomes including attendance and graduation rates of these students lag far behind their non-disabled peers. Due to the increase in this population, there is a critical need to provide them with the necessary support services to aid in their transition from high school to college and ensure their academic success. Multiple federal laws that are meant to support the transition of these students from high school to college have not merged and/or converged. The impact of these laws is examined. Limitations, future implications, and recommendations are addressed.
Mooney, J., & Cole, D. (2000). Learning outside the lines: Two Ivy League students with learning disabilities and ADHD give you the tools for academic success and educational revolution. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Their target audience is college students, but the authors’ stories illustrate how college’s conceptions of “intelligence,” “learning,” and “services” may be experienced by students with learning disabilities and ADHD. The authors offer advice and a unique perspective, built on their own academic struggles and eventual success in graduating from Brown University.
Mortimore, T., & Crozier, W. R. (2006). Dyslexia and difficulties with study skills in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 235-251.

This article presents findings from a questionnaire survey of 136 male students, 62 with dyslexia and 74 without dyslexia, from 17 British higher education institutions. The students with dyslexia reported difficulties with a wide range of skills and academic tasks, notably note taking, organization of essays and expressing ideas in writing. They reported that their difficulties were long-standing and had been experienced in primary and secondary school, although the pattern of these difficulties changed over time. They reported making use of resources available to them, including additional time for examinations, access to dyslexia tutors and support with information technology. However, there are indications of unmet needs in several areas, notably support for specific subjects and with organizing coursework, learning in lectures, and academic writing skills. The implications of these findings for provision for students with dyslexia are discussed.
Muller, L. (2006, November/December). Research collaboration with learning-disabled students: Strategies for successful student-faculty partnerships. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36(3), 26-29.

The process of a successful undergraduate student-faculty research collaboration involving a student with documented learning disabilities is detailed. As the student developed research skills, she also learned how to develop her own learning strategies. At the same time, the faculty member learned strategies adaptable to all student-faculty research collaborations.
Murray, C., Wren, C. T., & Keys, C. (2008). University faculty perceptions of students with learning disabilities: Correlates and group differences. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(3), 95-113.

This investigation examined faculty attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regard to students with learning disabilities (LD). An instrument was designed to measure attitudes and administered to all faculty in a large urban, private university. Responses from 192 faculty members were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis; results indicated that the instrument contained 12 reliable factors. Further, correlational analyses provided preliminary support for the instrument's construct validity by showing that major constructs were associated with each other in expected directions. Descriptive analyses indicated that faculty generally had positive perceptions about students with LD and were willing to spend time supporting students with LD. Consistent with prior research, faculty expressed greater willingness to provide minor, rather than major, accommodations. Group comparisons by faculty gender, academic unit, and rank are reported. The implications of these findings for future research and training efforts are discussed.
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (2007, Fall). The documentation disconnect for students with learning disabilities: Improving access to postsecondary disability services. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(4), 265-274.

This report by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) outlines important concerns about documentation issues related to students with disabilities as they transition from high school to postsecondary settings. These issues center on the "disconnect" between the nature and extent of disability documentation generated during a student's public school career and the documentation required to access services at the postsecondary education level. There is no easy answer to this problem given the legal, practical, and philosophical differences between these two educational settings, and it is clear that new ways of thinking about the documentation for accessing services in postsecondary education for students with learning disabilities (LD) need to occur. One of the main tenets of this paper is that all persons involved in the successful and equitable transition of individuals with LD to postsecondary institutions need to understand each other's constraints and perspectives. This understanding will be greatly enhanced when there is a shared goal of helping all students receive services to which they are entitled and when educators from each level commit to communicating with each other. The purpose of this report is to outline the issues affecting documentation for postsecondary disability services and to suggest ways to bridge the gap between secondary and postsecondary settings.
Nielsen, J. A. (2001). Successful university students with learning disabilities. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 15(4), 37-48.

A pronounced difference between seeming ability and actual accomplishment suggests a learning disability (LD), which can have extensive academic and nonacademic negative effects, but the concept of LDs is rife with controversy. This study investigated eight university students' perceptions of how their learning disabilities have affected them. They emphasized the desirability of early diagnosis and of having general education teachers being alerted to potential LDs.
Norton, S. M. (1992). Postsecondary learning disabled students: Do their study habits differ from those of their non-learning disabled peers? Community Junior College Research Quarterly of Research and Practice, 16(1), 105-115.

The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist between postsecondary students with learning disabilities and their non-learning disabled counterparts. Data were collected through two survey forms: one gathered specific data about the learning disabled group; the second provided data about study habits of the learning disabled group and two other groups of non-learning disabled students at San Diego Mesa College. Results showed that although most study habits did not significantly differ, students with learning disabilities required substantially more assistance in math, spelling, writing, and reading comprehension. As a result, implications for instruction are suggested. A short review of literature about postsecondary learning disability programs precedes the study discussion.
Norvilitis, J. M., Sun, L., & Zhang, J. (2010, January/February). ADHD symptomatology and adjustment to college in China and the United States. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(1) 86–94.

This study examined ADHD symptomatology and college adjustment in 420 participants--147 from the United States and 273 from China. It was hypothesized that higher levels of ADHD symptoms in general and the inattentive symptom group in particular would be related to decreased academic and social adjustment, career decision-making self-efficacy, and poorer study skills in both countries. Results generally supported the hypotheses, indicating that the difficulties associated with inattention are cross-cultural and not specific to the United States.

Ofiesh, N. S., Hughes, C., & Scott, S. S. (2004). Extended test time and postsecondary students with learning disabilities: A model for decision making. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19(1), 57-70.

The most frequently requested accommodation among students with learning disabilities (LD) in postsecondary settings is extended test time. The frequency with which this accommodation is requested and granted compels disability service providers to become knowledgeable about the factors that influence the need for, and appropriateness of, the accommodation. Moreover, the synthesis of these factors becomes the basis for determining if the accommodation is reasonable under federal law. The purpose of this article is to present a step-by-step model to be used as a decision-making process when considering the accommodation of extended test time for postsecondary students with LD. The model is designed to assist disability service providers in the analysis and synthesis of information collected from (1) the student's diagnostic evaluation, (2) the course or classroom test to be accommodated, and (3) student interviews. A list of diagnostic tests from the four most frequently administered test batteries used with adults is provided, along with a concise explanation of how characteristics of LD impact reading, writing, and math, and relate to the need for extended time. This information can be used to determine if extended test time is a reasonable accommodation and to estimate how much additional time to provide.
Ofiesh, N., Mather, N., & Russell, A. (2005, March). Using speeded cognitive, reading, and academic measures to determine the need for extended test time among university students with learning disabilities. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23(1), 35-52.

This study examined the relationship between scores on “speeded” cognitive and academic tests and the need for the accommodation of extended test time for normally achieving students (NA) and students with learning disabilities (LD). Often, in postsecondary settings the decision to provide the accommodation of extended test time is based largely on the diagnostic test scores in the student's LD documentation. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between specific diagnostic tests and the need for the accommodation of extended test time. A secondary purpose was to investigate the relationships and predictive ability of five speeded cognitive tests, three speeded cluster scores, and two measures of timed reading. Correlations and logistic regression analyses were used to assess gain in score performance and predict the need for extended test time. Participants included 41 NA university students and 43 university students with LD. The findings indicated significant group differences on all speeded cognitive, reading, and academic tests, with the exception of Digit Symbol on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Retrieval Fluency and Decision Speed tests on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. The Reading Fluency test and the Academic Fluency cluster of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III were the best predictors of students with LD who needed extended time on the multiple-choice reading comprehension test.
Parker, D. R., & Banerjee, M. (2007). Leveling the digital playing field: Assessing the learning technology needs of college-bound students with LD and/or ADHD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33(1), 5-14.

As increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities (LD) or attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) transition to postsecondary education, they encounter a heightened need for proficiency with a wide range of learning technologies. Whereas the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA) requires consideration of a student's assistive technology training needs in high school, the Americans With Disabilities Act does not require any evaluation or training services for postsecondary students with disabilities. In an era of measurable outcomes, it is critical for secondary school personnel to consider effective assessments and relevant interventions when college-bound students with cognitive disabilities lack proficiency with these technologies. Survey research at a highly competitive public university found significant differences between the technology needs, preferences, and fluency of undergraduates with and without disabilities. This article presents findings from that study as well as implications for teachers and evaluators who assist students with LD and ADHD in their transition planning for postsecondary education.
Payne, N. A. (2010). Adults who have learning disabilities: Transition from GED to postsecondary activities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cappella University, Minneapolis, MN. Retrieved from:

Approximately one third of special education students with learning disabilities leave high school before graduation. A high percentage of these students enroll in adult secondary completion classes in an attempt to obtain a high school equivalency certificate. Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2003 transition planning is mandated for all students with disabilities enrolled in secondary education programs. This mandate does not apply to adult secondary completion classes and researchers clearly purport that the lack of transition planning may leave adult students with disabilities unexposed to needed services. While there is adequate substantiation within the secondary education system that transition planning leads to positive post-high school completion outcomes for students with learning disabilities, there is no evidence or validation of such within adult secondary completion programs. Given this void, the intent of this research was to discover and inform the education field as to the value of transition planning and supports by investigating their existence and understanding how they contributed to post-GED completion activities, from the perspective of the adult who has learning disabilities. The participants’ stories are powerful and inspiring and provide a starting point from which to learn. As a result of this study ten themes emerged, substantiating the need for and the value of transition planning activities for students with learning disabilities who are engaged in adult secondary education completion programs. The emerging themes were: navigational bridges, goal-oriented behaviors, independence, determination, self-awareness, self-defeating behaviors, support network, co-investigation, academic supports, and career planning. There is much wisdom to learn from these participants’ stories.
Peters, J. (2011). Transition skills of first-year college students with learning disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Riley School of Education, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN. Retrieved from:

The lifelong challenges for the individual with learning disabilities are unique, dynamic, and evident as the number of these students enrolling in postsecondary education increases. The increase underscores the importance of the transition process, which can present challenges and reinforces the need for secondary and postsecondary educators to understand the significance of supporting students to develop and use transition skills. This study was an investigation of the transition skills that first-year college students with learning disabilities at considered important and used as they moved from secondary to postsecondary education. The theoretical framework for this study was based on Schlossberg’s transition theory. Research questions focused on: (a) the academic and social skills that students with learning disabilities use as they transition from high school to college, (b) the academic and social skills students with learning disabilities consider to be the most important as they transition from high school to college, and (c) the ways in which academic and social transition skills helped students with learning disabilities adjust to college. The instruments used for this study included interviews, a transition skills checklist, and transition knowledge and skills statements. The interviews were analyzed using manual coding, and the other 2 instruments were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Time management, self-advocacy, and cognitive skills were ranked the most important transitions skills. The Transition to College Program was developed to provide direct instruction in the named transition skills. This study will contribute to social change by increasing the numbers of students with learning disabilities who persist to graduation.
Pollak, D. (2005). Dyslexia, the self and higher education. Staffordshire, UK: Trentham

Increasing numbers of students identified as dyslexic are entering universities, and the academy is obliged to offer them an accessible curriculum. But many of these students struggle to deal with the label ”dyslexic.”

This book examines the relationship between dyslexia and identity through qualitative research with students at four universities. It offers unique insights into the views of the students themselves about their experience of dyslexia and education. In the candid interviews, by turns moving, blunt and amusing, the students reveal the socio-emotional effects of dyslexia and its effects on their learning. The students display a wide range of ideas on the nature of dyslexia, absorbed from many different sources. But their learning histories show that the self-concepts of all of them were strongly affected by being labelled dyslexic.

The students' views and experiences indicate what the academy should be doing for these students. The recommendations draw on social construction and alternative views of academic literacy, and are pertinent to the debate about the existence of dyslexia.

This is an important book for the higher education sector. It connects with the agenda of inclusivity and widening participation in university and has new things to say to managers and tutors.
Pope, D. J. (2010, August). The impact of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity on academic achievement in UK university students. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 34(3), 335-345.

Increasing numbers of students in UK universities are presenting with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the impact of ADHD symptomatology on academic achievement in university students in the UK has not previously been explored. This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) in 464 undergraduate psychology students across two year cohorts. Findings suggest that there is a high incidence of undiagnosed students in the at risk categories for ADHD. Students who score higher on the inattention subscale are more likely to achieve a lower final average percentage mark (APM) and are significantly less likely to complete their degree within three years. The study suggests a need to focus on the identification and provision of support for students with elevated ADHD symptomatology, particularly inattention characteristics, irrespective of a previous diagnosis of ADHD.
Prevatt, F., Lampropoulos, G. K., Bowles, V., & Garrett, L. (2011, January). The use of between session assignments in ADHD coaching with college students. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(1), 18-27.

Objective: To provide an analysis of the use of between session assignments (BSA) in ADHD coaching with college students. The article provides a description of the structure and process of using BSA in an academic setting.

Method: A brief survey of ADHD coaches is used to evaluate 13 coaching clients engaged in an 8-week structured program. A case study illustrates the process of using BSA with college students.

Results: Overall progress in the ADHD coaching sessions was significantly correlated with coach’s rating of the client’s quality of BSA during treatment, the client’s positive attitude to BSA, and the usefulness of BSA. Treatment gain scores were significantly related to the client’s being motivated by a desire to please their parents.

Conclusions: BSAs can be useful in the context of ADHD coaching with college students.
Proctor, B. E., & Prevatt, F. (2009). Confirming the factor structure of Attention-
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in college students using student and parent data. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(3), 250-259.

This study used confirmatory factor analysis to compare one-, two-, and three-factor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms to determine which model is the best fit for the data. Participants were 190 clinic-referred college students who had been evaluated for ADHD, 155 of whom had received a diagnosis. Data consisted of both self- and other (e.g., parent) ratings of both current and childhood symptoms. Symptoms came directly from the "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD. A three-factor model, consistent with the "DSM-III," was superior for current and childhood symptoms, regardless of rater (i.e., self or parent). The primary implication for these findings is that there may be a viable Impulsive subtype of ADHD within the adult population. Further research might include a closer examination of the unique functional limitations associated with impulsivity, as well as the development of diagnostic items that maximize model fit.
Raskind, M. H., & Higgins, E. L. (1998, January/February). Assistive technology for postsecondary students with learning disabilities: An overview. In B. R. Bryant (Ed.), Assistive Technology [Special Issue]. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(1), 27-40.

The number of postsecondary students with learning disabilities has increased dramatically over the last several years. This increase, coupled with federal legislation mandating "academic adjustments" for students with disabilities, has prompted the development of postsecondary learning disability support service programs. One support service that has begun to attract considerable attention is assistive technology. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assistive technology as it relates to postsecondary students with learning disabilities by (a) briefly tracing the development of assistive technology service for postsecondary students with learning disabilities; (b) identifying basic models of assistive technology service delivery and specific services; (c) providing a description of specific assistive technologies; (d) reviewing research on the effectiveness of assistive technology with postsecondary students with learning disabilities, with a focus on the authors' 3-year federally funded study; and (e) concluding with a summary and recommendations.
Rath, K. A., & Royer, J. M. (2002). The nature and effectiveness of learning disability services for college students. Educational Psychology Review, 14(4), 353-381.

This article summarizes the research literature that describes the nature and effectiveness of services that are provided to college students with learning disabilities. Six categories of services are described: assistive technologies and programs, program modifications, therapy and counseling, strategy training, direct academic assistance, and interventions designed to strengthen weak academic skills. Nearly all of the literature that was examined fell within the first 5 categories, with only 3 studies describing efforts to directly improve the academic performance that identified a student's learning disability. In addition, there is almost a total lack of evidence showing that any of the first 5 categories of services resulted in improved academic performance. There was, however, evidence that attempts at improving academic skills resulted in improved academic performance. The article concludes with a discussion of the role that learning disability services should play in a college environment.
Reed, M. J., Kennett, D. J., Lewis, T., Lund-Lucas, E., Stallberg, C., & Newbold, I. L. (2009, August). The relative effects of university success courses and individualized interventions for students with learning disabilities. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(4), 385-400.

Little is known about the relative effects of post-secondary learning services for students with learning disabilities. We compared outcomes for students with learning disabilities who selected to: (1) take an academic learning success course (course-intervention), (2) have regular individual interventions (high-intervention) or (3) use services only as needed (low-intervention). Pre- and post-test comparisons revealed improvements in academic self-efficacy and academic resourcefulness for students in the course- and high-intervention groups. The course-intervention group also showed decreases in their failure attributions to bad luck and increases in their general repertoire of learned resourcefulness skills in comparison to the high-intervention group and had significantly higher year-end GPAs in comparison to the low-intervention group. Here we find positive outcomes for students with learning disabilities taking a course that teaches post-secondary learning and academic skills.
Reis, S. M., McGuire, J. M., & Neu, T. W. (2000, April). Compensation strategies used by high-ability students with learning disabilities who succeed in college. Gifted Child Quarterly, 44, 123-134.

To investigate how high-ability students with learning disabilities succeed in postsecondary academic environments, 12 young adults with disabilities who were successful at the university level were studied. Extensive interviews with these young adults provided examples of the problems faced by high-ability students with learning disabilities, as well as the specific compensation strategies the used to address and overcome these problems. Four of the participants had been identified as having a learning disability in elementary school; six were identified in junior or senior high school; and two were not diagnosed until college. The participants believed that having a learning disability was considered by elementary or secondary school personnel as synonymous with below-average ability. They reported that content remediation, rather than instruction in compensatory strategies, was usually provided in elementary and secondary school learning disability programs. In this article, the compensation strategies used by academically gifted students who succeeded in college are discussed. These include: study strategies, cognitive/learning strategies, compensatory supports, environmental accommodations, opportunities for counseling, self-advocacy, and the development of an individual plan incorporating a focus on metacognition and executive functions.
Roer-Strier, D. (2002). University students with learning disabilities advocating for change. Disability and Rehabilitation, 24(17), 914-924.

Purpose: In recent decades Western psychology has conceptualized learning disabilities (LD) in terms of deficits and such related `social emotional issues’ as insecurity, low self-esteem and social isolation that can be rehabilitated through combined remedial teaching and psychological intervention. With increasing advocacy and legislation on behalf of people with disabilities in the US, UK and Australia, more resources are being made available to students with LD in institutions of higher education. Due to this increase in the quantity of services, written programmes and accommodations made to their needs, increased numbers of students with LD have been graduating successfully from institutions of higher education. This paper describes an option for treating students with LD that is based on a theoretical perspective that understands these students as an excluded population and emphasizes the importance of their empowerment.

Method: A project involving social work students with LD at Hebrew University in Jerusalem is presented as a case study. Case-study investigation, one of the common methods of qualitative research, explores social and human problems in their natural context. A 6-year evaluation of this project was conducted based on questionnaires, focus groups, documentation of all activities related to the project, in-depth interviews and outcome measures.

Results: The results suggest that the project developed in three stages: raising awareness, building partnerships, and lobbying for rights and services. Outcome measures indicate that the project was successful in lowering dropout rates and improving students’ academic achievement. Analysis of interviews with students suggests that the project positively affected the students’ perceptions by helping them reframe the social and emotional connotations of their learning disability. Students reported marked social and emotional change, including reduced stress and anxiety levels and increased self-esteem.

Conclusions: Empowerment practices that are based on partnership, participation, advocacy and social change provide an alternative to rehabilitation via individual therapy.
Rooney, M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & Yoon, Y. (2012, April). Substance use in college students with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(3), 221-234.

Objective: The college years represent a developmental transition during which the initiation and escalation of heavy drinking set the stage for lifelong difficulties with alcohol and other drugs. Evidence from studies of adolescents and young adults with ADHD suggests that college students with the disorder may be uniquely vulnerable to alcohol- and drug-related problems. However, no studies have examined substance use in college students with ADHD.

Method: Tobacco, alcohol, illicit drug use, and associated impairment were examined in 91 college students with (n = 53) and without (n = 38) ADHD.

Results: ADHD was associated with increased frequency of tobacco use, higher rates of dangerous or hazardous patterns of alcohol use, and higher levels of impairment related to marijuana and nonmarijuana illicit drug use, independent of conduct disorder history.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that college students with ADHD may be at elevated risk for problematic patterns of substance use.
Runyan, M. K., & Smith, J. F., Jr. (1991, September-December). Identifying and accommodating learning disabled law school students. Journal of Legal Education, 41(3-4), 317-349.

This article explains the nature of learning disabilities and suggests accommodations (e.g., test modifications, course modifications, academic support services) that law schools can make in the light of federal law and litigation protecting the rights of disabled students. Interviews with two learning-disabled attorneys, a glossary, and student questionnaires are included.
Ryan, A. G., Nolan, B. F., Keim, J., & Madsen, W. (1999, May). Psychosocial adjustment factors of postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 13(3), 3-18.

The purpose of this study was to examine selected issues addressing the psychosocial adjustment of postsecondary students with learning disabilities (LD) in comparison to their peers without learning disabilities (NLD). Students from two mid-size colleges in the Midwest responded to survey questions and the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1964). The study explored psychosocial issues such as self-concept, self-awareness, and other areas related to independence, academics, and goal setting. The sample consisted of 110 students: 51 students with learning disabilities, and 59 students without disabilities who were not significantly different in gender or age. The data indicate, in general, lower levels of awareness, acceptance, and expression of affective characteristics among students with LD. Background findings are further reported in terms of students’ residential status, employment status, goal setting, and self-perceptions of academic confidence. 
Schwiebert, V. L., Sealander, K. A., & Dennison, J. L. (2002, Winter). Strategies for counselors working with high school students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(1), 3-10.

Researchers agree early intervention is crucial to prevent academic underachievement and negative effects on the lives of children, adolescents, and adults affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If counselors, particularly high school counselors, address the needs of students with ADHD, these students may attain their potential and enter into the workplace or postsecondary education. The authors provide counselors with strategies to identify interpersonal, academic, vocational, and life issues that may affect students with ADHD and to help teachers and parents prepare students with ADHD for the transition from high school to postsecondary education or the work environment.
Scott, S. S. (1997). Accommodating college students with learning disabilities: How much is enough? Innovative Higher Education, 22(2), 85-99.

Individuals with learning disabilities are attending institutions of higher education in greater numbers than ever before. In attempts to accommodate these students in the classroom, faculty often face the ethical concern of balancing the rights of students with learning disabilities with the academic integrity of the course, program of study, and institution. In order to dispel misinformation, a brief description of learning disabilities and federal law is provided. The ethical concern of how much is enough? is examined, and recommendations are provided for the informed and active participation of faculty in accommodating college students with learning disabilities.
Scott, S. S., & Gregg, N. (2000). Meeting the evolving education needs of faculty in providing access for college students with LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(2), 158-167.

Faculty play an essential role in providing access for college students with LD. Though many recommendations exist in the literature for educating faculty about their roles regarding students with LD, it is unclear whether these strategies are actually addressing faculty needs. To examine this issue, the evolving role of faculty is discussed. Current practices in faculty education pertaining to college students with LD are reviewed. Discrepancies between the evolving faculty role and current faculty education practices are examined. Guiding questions are proposed for expanding faculty education efforts and models to keep pace with the evolving faculty role in providing access for college students with LD.
Semrud-Clikeman, M., & Harder, L. (2011, April). Neuropsychological correlates of written expression in college students with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(3), 215-223.

Objective: To examine written expression and the executive function skills (working memory, verbal fluency, and planning and organization) involved in written expression in college-aged students with ADHD.

Method: Two groups of undergraduate students, aged 19 to 28 years, (ADHD, n = 31; control, n = 27) are evaluated on selected measures of executive function and a measure of written expression.

Results: No statistically significant differences are found between groups on measures of executive function and written expression. A standard multiple regression model is significant for predicting writing mechanics, with a measure of behavioral inhibition making a statistically significant contribution. 

Conclusion: Findings from the study provide important information about the link between specific executive function abilities and written expression, particularly for fundamentals in writing in college students.
Shany, M., Wiener, J., & Assido, M. (in press). Friendship predictors of global self-worth and domain-specific self-concepts in university students with and without learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities.

This study investigated the association among friendship, global self-worth, and domain-specific self-concepts in 102 university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD reported lower global self-worth and academic self-concept than students without LD, and this difference was greater for women. Students with LD also reported that they had more stable friendships than students without LD. Students with LD were more likely to have higher global self-worth and self-perceptions of social acceptance if they had stable friendships and had relationships where they communicated spontaneously and frankly. None of the friendship variables predicted academic self-concept. Thus, having stable and intimate friendships is a protective factor in relation to global self-worth and social self-concept in university students with LD.
Sharoni, V., & Vogel, G. (2007). Entrance test accommodations, admission and enrollment of students with learning disabilities in teacher training colleges in Israel. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(3), 255-270.

The 'Saf' (threshold) exam is the entry exam taken by approximately 40% of the students enrolled in teacher training colleges in Israel. Students with learning disabilities may apply and be granted testing accommodations on this exam. This study examines the percentage of students with testing accommodations among the testees and those who began their studies in 2003. Their test and subtest scores were compared to those of students without accommodations as were grades on high school matriculation exams. Characteristics such as gender, age, difficulties as reported in assessments and assessment history were examined. Enrollment patterns in the various colleges departments were noted. Satisfaction with the testing accommodations process was looked at as well. Ramifications and recommendations are discussed vis a vis future research needed and policies regarding the admission of students with learning disabilities to institutions of higher learning.
Shifrin, J. G., Proctor, B. E., & Prevatt, F. F. (2010, March). Work performance differences between college students with and without ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13(5), 489-496.

Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance.

Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables include items from Barkley's "Work Performance Rating Scale" (Barkley & Murphy, 1998), which assesses the degree to which symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are evident on the job. For the group with ADHD, the relationship between symptom severity and indicators of work performance (e.g., number of times fired, overall rating of work performance) was also examined, using correlational analyses. Descriptive analyses were also used to examine which items were most frequently endorsed by the group with ADHD, as well as which areas of work were most affected by ADHD symptoms.

Results: Results reveal that ADHD has a detrimental impact on the work performance of college students in multiple areas. Severity of symptoms was unrelated to number of times fired from a job and the overall indicator of work performance.

Conclusion: College students with ADHD do exhibit more on-the-job difficulties than their non-ADHD peers, and thus may require extra support with their work-related endeavors.
Simoncelli, A. & Hinson, J. (2010). Designing online instruction for postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 19(2), 211-220. Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from

This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students’ attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that research has shown to be beneficial to students with learning disabilities. Some of these include digitally delivered instructional audio, various textual interactions between the students, and other assistive methodologies. This research is a case study of a 21-year-old college student with dyslexia during an online history course which used several different content delivery methods in order to teach the students in the class. This research provides an insight into the impact that these online instructional methods have on the students’ attitudes and learning strategies. The results help explain the behavior of the participants of this study and how they reacted to the online environment in which they were placed.
Skinner, M. E. (2007). Faculty willingness to provide accommodations and course alternatives to postsecondary students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 22(2), 32-45.

The number of students with documented learning disabilities (LD) enrolled in postsecondary settings has increased steadily over the past 20 years. Providing reasonable accommodations significantly increases the probability of success for these students. The present study investigated the willingness of postsecondary instructors to provide accommodations and alternative courses. Results indicated that instructor willingness to provide accommodations and their support of course alternatives varied as a function of school affiliation (e.g., education, mathematics and science, etc.), rank, and specific accommodation requested. Based on the results of this study and previous literature, programmatic suggestions are provided for facilitating the provision of academic adjustments to student with LD in postsecondary settings.
Snyder, L. E., & Downey, D. E. (Eds.). (2001, February). Accommodations for College Students with Learning Disabilities [Feature Issue]. Topics in Language Disorders, 21(2).

“In the past decade, the number of students with language learning disabilities entering colleges and universities around the country has nearly tripled. Reports indicate that between 3 and 10% of all freshmen enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States have learning disabilities (LD) (Willdorf, 2000). Many of these students experience a successful course of studies and graduate without additional help. Others, however, continue to need some form of accommodation to help them succeed. We edited this issue of Topics in Language Disorders (21:2) to draw attention to the observation that language learning disabilities (LLD) don’t “go away” once a student enrolls in college. Specifically, we wanted to focus on the problems that students with LLD encounter with the undergraduate curriculum, the role speech-language pathologists and special educators can play at the college” (p. v).
Sparks, R. L., & Javorsky, J. (2000). Section 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act: Accommodating the learning-disabled student in the foreign language curriculum. Foreign Language Annals, 33(6), 645-654.

Examines special issues surrounding foreign language (FL) requirements for students classified as learning disabled (LD). Focuses on why students experience FL learning problems, the problems with the definition of and diagnosis of LD, whether research supports traditional assumptions about LD and FL learning, whether students classified as LD should be permitted to substitute courses for or waive the college FL requirement, and implications of research.
Sparks, R. L., & Lovett, B. J. (2009, November/December). College students with learning disability diagnoses: Who are they and how do they perform? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(6), 494-510.

The purpose of this study is to provide an up-to-date review of the literature on postsecondary students classified as having learning disabilities (LD). The review focused on the criteria by which students were classified as LD and the cognitive and achievement characteristics of the participants. From almost 400 studies, only 30% were empirical (data-based) investigations reporting original data. Findings showed that a wide range of criteria was used to classify students as LD, although various discrepancy criteria and registration with university offices of disability services were most often cited. Participants’ mean scores on standardized intelligence and achievement tests were in the average range but somewhat lower than those of other college students. Generally, the findings show a lack of consensus among diagnosticians and researchers about how LD should be diagnosed and also show that college students classified as LD tend to have average achievement, despite scoring below their classmates.
Sparks, R. L., & Lovett, B. J. (2009). Objective criteria for classification of postsecondary students as learning disabled effects on prevalence rates and group characteristics. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(3), 230-239.

This study examined the consequences of classifying postsecondary students as learning disabled (LD) using five objective sets of criteria: IQ-achievement discrepancies (1.0 to 1.49 SD, 1.5 to 1.99 SD, and ≥2.0 SD), DSM-IV criteria, and chronic educational impairment beginning in childhood. The participants were 378 postsecondary students from two universities who had been previously classified as LD and were receiving instructional and/or testing accommodations. The agreement between diagnostic models was often low, both in terms of the proportion of students identified as well as which students were identified by the models. The discrepancy models identified the largest proportions of students as LD (10% to 42%),whereas fewer than 10% of participants met either of the other sets of criteria, and 55% of the participants were not classified as LD by any of the models. Implications for further research and practices in postsecondary settings are discussed.
Taylor, G. & Palfreman-Kay, J. M. (2000). Helping each other: Relations between disabled and non-disabled students on Access programmes. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 24(1), 39-53.

This article highlights issues concerned with the nature of relationships between disabled students and their non-disabled peers in further education. An investigation of the relationships between disabled and non-disabled students is undertaken within a critical ethnographic framework. The interaction between students is located within a wider societal context, with a particular emphasis upon identifying the impact of oppressive social forces. Deaf students, and students with dyslexia are the particular focus of this article as a case study within a wider disability debate. The findings point to a lack of contact between disabled and non-disabled children in primary and secondary education as being an important factor in relationships between these two groups in tertiary education. A variation in experience is highlighted between the different colleges and also different Access programmes within the same institution, which raises questions about notions of fairness and equality within the Access system. Recommendations are made for the recruitment and induction of disabled and non-disabled students leading to a more integrated approach.
Trainin, G., & Swanson, H. L. (2005, Fall). Cognition, metacognition, and achievement of college students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(4), 261-272.

This study examined the way successful college students with LD compensated for their deficits in phonological processing. Successful was defined as average or above-average grades in college coursework. The study compared the cognitive and metacognitive performance of students with and without LD (N=40). Although achievement levels for both groups were comparable, students with LD scored significantly lower than students without LD in word reading, processing speed, semantic processing, and short-term memory. Differences were also found between groups in self-regulation and number of hours of studying. Results showed that students with LD compensated for their processing deficits by relying on verbal abilities, learning strategies, and help seeking.
Troiano, P. F. (2003, May/June). College students and learning disability: Elements of self-style. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 404-419.

Students with learning disabilities are attending college at an increasing rate. Still, little is known about the phenomenon of experiencing a learning disability in postsecondary education. Through grounded theory methodology, this study explored the experiences of 9 college students with learning disabilities. The emergent theory points to elements of "self-style" as a means to operationally define learning disability.
Troiano, P. F., Liefeld, J. A., & Trachtenberg, J. V. (2010, Spring). Academic support and college success for postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 40(2), 35-44.

The relationship between degree of academic support center use and college success was examined in a population of 262 college students with learning disabilities. Five years of attendance data and graduation rates were examined and submitted to discriminant function analysis to evaluate the predictive influence of academic support center use on college student outcomes. Results indicated that students who had higher levels of attendance in an academic support center had higher overall grade point averages and higher rates of graduation. That is to say, students with learning disabilities who attended learning support centers regularly were more likely to have higher grades and graduate college than those who did not.
Trott, C. (2010). Dyscalculia in further and higher education. In D. Green (Ed.), CETL-MSOR Conference 2010- Conference Proceedings, 6-7 September 2010, University of Birmingham (pp. 70-75). Birmingham, UK: Maths, Stats & OR Network. Retrieved from:

Dyscalculia is one of the newer challenges that face practitioners and researchers, particularly in the post 16 sectors. The focus of this paper is therefore be Further and Higher Education. Dyscalculia is a specific learning difference, which affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills and an intuitive grasp of numbers. Consideration is given to this and other current definitions, together with a theoretical perspective. The paper also considers the prevalence of dyscalculia, as well as the difficulties dyscalculic students’ experience, both in academic life and more generally. The paper highlights DysCalculiUM, a new first-line screening tool for dyscalculia focusing on the understanding of mathematics. The system provides an on-line delivery of the screening tool to identify students at risk with minimal staff input. A Profiler identifies students requiring further investigation. This may take the form of an in-depth interview and referral for further testing. The final section of the paper considers subsequent one-to-one support for students. A case study of a dyscalculic student in Higher Education working with tables of information, percentages and graphs, serves to illustrate some of the ways in which dyscalculic students can be supported on a one-to-one basis.
Tsagris, D. (2010). Exploring the use of an internal student homepage for students with learning disabilities in a postsecondary web community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

This case study explored the use of student homepages. Students in a technical college developed an individual website and used it as a self-advocacy tool in a web based community. The homepages were used as an integrated method of instruction during a summer transition program (STP) for students with Learning Disabilities (LD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After the program, students used homepages as an online method for communicating with professors about their disability. The use of 'The Student Homepages' was found to promote self-determined knowledge, skills, and attitude and to promote a social context of autonomy. The case study included four participant groups, the teachers who delivered the STP, the students who participated in the intervention, the college professors with whom the information was shared, and the staff of the Centre for Students with Disabilities. Ten student participants were interviewed during the STP and after the first term of college. All 10 students recommended other colleges and universities use the homepages during their transition programs. It was found that the activities associated with creating their homepages were motivating and engaging. Six members of the teaching team observed and reported the high level of student engagement and motivation during the transition program. The homepages were found to promote self-determined components of self-awareness, disability awareness, and self-advocacy. Twenty college professors completed surveys about the homepage and their interaction with the students. Three college professors were interviewed. The college professors' feedback indicated that they were impressed with the efforts the students made in producing their homepages; they valued having access to additional information not ordinarily readily available. Disability staff were surveyed and confirmed the student and professor feedback as to the value of the homepages as a disability related method of communication. This case study offers disability service providers a model to integrate technology and a self-determination curriculum into a transition program and to enhance accommodation procedures by the use of student homepages.
Vogel, G., Fresko, B., & Wertheim, C. (2007). Peer tutoring for college students with learning disabilities: Perceptions of tutors and tutees. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(6), 485-493.

Peer tutoring is a commonly provided support service for students with learning disabilities (LD) in institutions of higher education. A large-scale survey was conducted to evaluate the PERACH peer tutoring project for students with LD at 25 universities, regional colleges, and teacher training colleges in Israel. The purpose of the study was to understand the tutoring process from the point of view of both tutees and tutors with respect to 5 main areas: tutees' needs, focus of tutoring activities, difficulties surrounding the tutoring endeavor, importance of similar study experiences, and satisfaction with the project. It is our supposition that major discrepancies in perceptions are likely to undermine the effectiveness of the tutoring. Similarities and differences in perceptions were identified, and implications that can be useful in guiding service providers are discussed.
Vogel, S. A., Leyser, Y., Wyland, S., & Brulle, A. (1999, June). Students with learning disabilities in higher education: Faculty attitude and practices. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 14(3), 173-186.

Prior research indicated that academic success for students with learning disabilities (LD) is enhanced when faculty members are willing to make accommodations. This investigation explored faculty attitude and practices toward providing teaching and examination accommodations for students with LD in higher education. All full-time and part-time faculty teaching in a large midwestern, public, doctoral-granting university were asked to respond to a survey regarding their background knowledge about learning disabilities and the relevant legislation, their firsthand experience teaching such students, their willingness to provide accommodations, and their judgment of the fairness of providing accommodations vis-a-vis students without disabilities. Faculty (N = 420) indicated slightly greater willingness to provide teaching accommodations as compared to examination accommodations (EA). The highest level of willingness was reported for allowing students to tape-record lectures. Faculty members were least willing to provide supplementary materials such as an outline of their lecture or to provide assignments in an alternative format. Faculty members were most willing to allow extended time for exams and to allow exams to be proctored in the office of support services for students with disabilities. Faculty were least willing to alter the format of examinations. Factors that may have influenced faculty attitude include age, academic discipline, experience teaching students with LD, years of teaching experience, and professional rank.
Warmington, M., Stothard, S. E., & Snowling, M. J. (in press). Assessing dyslexia in higher education: The York adult assessment battery-revised. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs.

Although there are a number of standardised measures to assess dyslexia in children, there are comparatively fewer instruments suitable for the assessment of dyslexia in adults. Given the growing number of students entering UK higher education institutions, there is a need to develop reliable tools for assessing the additional needs of those with dyslexia and related difficulties. This study reports data from a revised version of the York Adult Assessment: An Assessment Battery for Dyslexia Screening in Higher Education. The current York Adult Assessment-Revised (YAA-R) is an assessment battery consisting of tests of reading, spelling, writing and phonological skills. Data from a normative sample of 106 adults without dyslexia and a validation sample of 20 adults with dyslexia illustrate significant group differences on the tests comprising the YAA-R. Additionally, the YAA-R has good discriminatory power yielding 80% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Taken together, the YAA-R is a suitable test battery for the assessment and identification of dyslexia in university students.
Weis, R., Sykes, L., & Unadkat, D. (in press). Qualitative differences in learning disabilities across postsecondary institutions. Journal of Learning Disabilities.

Many college students receiving accommodations for specific learning disability (SLD) do not meet objective criteria for the disorder. Furthermore, whether students meet criteria depends on the diagnostic decision model used by their clinician. The authors examined whether the relationship between diagnostic model and likelihood of meeting objective criteria is moderated by students’ postsecondary institution. They administered a comprehensive psychoeducational battery to 98 undergraduates receiving accommodations for SLD at 2-year public colleges, 4-year public universities, and 4-year private colleges. Most 4-year public university students failed to meet objective criteria for SLD. In contrast, most 4-year private college students met objective criteria based on significant ability–achievement discrepancies, and most 2-year public college students met objective criteria based on normative deficits in achievement and cognitive processing. Students who met objective criteria also differed significantly in degree of academic impairment. The authors’ findings indicate qualitative differences in SLD across postsecondary settings and have implications for the identification and mitigation of SLD in college students.
Weiss, S. (2004, Spring). Contemplating greatness: Learning disabilities and the practice of law. The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Minority Issues, 6, 219-259.

“This article provides an expanded review of what constitutes a "disability" under the ADA and what its introduction has meant for law schools, state bar examiners, and legal employers. Part II examines the evolution of the ADA, its application, and specific learning disabilities under the statute. Part III analyzes the ADA in conjunction with the study of law and accommodations given to those with a learning disability. Part IV discusses how learning disabilities are interpreted by bar examiners and what accommodations and deemed reasonable when providing for them. Finally, Part V harmonizes what learning disabilities have meant to the modern-day practice of law, the ethical implications associated with the advent of the ADA, and the hazards involved in disclosing a learning disability” (p. 220).

Weyandt, L. L., & DuPaul, G. J. (2012, April). College Students with ADHD Revisited [Special Section]. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(3).

“Increasing empirical attention has been focused on college students with ADHD in recent years. In this special series, five studies are included that address psychosocial issues, comorbidity, and treatment of college students with ADHD. The nature and results of each study are briefly described. This special series of articles significantly advances our knowledge of critical issues with respect to psychosocial functioning, alcohol/substance use, comorbidity, and treatment of ADHD in college students” (p. 199).

Articles in this special section include:

  • Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in College Students With ADHD
  • Substance Use in College Students With ADHD
  • The Positive Illusory Bias: Does It Explain Self-Evaluations in College Students With ADHD?
  • Depression and Anxiety Among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students With ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia
  • Drug and Alcohol Use in College Students With and Without ADHD

Wilczenski, F. L. (1993). Coming to terms with an identity of "learning disabled" in college. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 7(1), 49-61.

Ten college students discussed their experience of a "learning disabled" identity during twelve group counseling sessions. Group members progressed through three stages (denial, exploration, and acceptance) in clarifying the personal meaning of learning disabilities and in examining the social stigma of that identity. Students' perceptions of learning disabilities as specific vs. global deficiencies, modifiable vs. permanently handicapping conditions, and stigmatizing vs. nonstigmatizing identities, were the focus of group meetings. This paper describes the counseling processes involved in coming to terms with an identity of learning disabled in college.
Williams, M., & Upadhyay, W. S. (2003). To be or not to be disabled. Women & Therapy, 26(1), 145-154.

This narrative consists of two sections that describe the experience of a graduate student with a learning disability. The first section documents the first author's process of coming to understand and accept the positive and negative impacts of her learning disability. This author explains how others (e.g., parents, teachers, therapists, coaches) have exhibited a natural tendency to underestimate the pervasiveness of the disability. The second section reflects the experience of the first author's coach in working with the first author around her learning disability. Potential implications for therapists working with learning-disabled clients are also discussed throughout the article.
Wilmshurst, L., Peele, M., & Wilmshurst, L. (2011, January). Resilience and well-being in college students with and without a diagnosis of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(1), 11-17.

Objective: The study examines psychological well-being and self-concept in college students diagnosed with ADHD.

Method: We surveyed 17 undergraduate college students with ADHD and 19 undergraduate controls concerning academic and emotional support received from family and friends. All students completed the Connor’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II), Connor’s Adult Rating Scale (CAARS), Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS:2) and Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB).

Results: Between group differences were significant for the CAARS and CPT-II, but not total self-concept (TSC) or global PWB. The strongest predictors for TSC were environmental mastery (PWB) for the ADHD group and positive relations with others (PWB) for the controls. Students with ADHD reported significantly higher paternal support than controls who reported significantly greater support from friends.

Conclusion: College students with a diagnosis of ADHD may represent an especially resilient group. Future studies should investigate competencies of students with ADHD who have achieved success against the odds.
Young Kong, S. (2012). The emotional impact of being recently diagnosed with dyslexia from the perspective of chiropractic students. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 36(1), 127-146.

Increased awareness and improved tests have contributed to the identification of rising numbers of dyslexic students entering higher education in the United Kingdom. Nearly half of these students are not diagnosed until they start their HE courses. Studies of experiences of dyslexic students diagnosed as children exist; however, there is little comparable information on dyslexic students diagnosed as adults.

This qualitative study explores the experiences of six students diagnosed with dyslexia after starting their Masters degrees. Their personal accounts were analysed using thematic analysis. The major themes identified were:

• Distress
• Self-doubt
• Embarrassment
• Frustration
• Relief
• Confidence
• Motivation 

The findings revealed that being diagnosed with dyslexia as an adult can be cathartic or devastating depending on the individual’s current emotional status and personality. However, as they develop a deeper understanding of what dyslexia means and how it affects them as individuals, the diagnosis becomes a liberating revelation. Once the label is accepted, the individual can embrace the change in lifestyle that the diagnosis necessitates. This study provides a deeper understanding of the consequences of a late diagnosis and highlights the need for management approaches to be individually tailored to specific needs.
Zuriff, G. E. (1996, December). Learning disabilities in the academy: A professor’s guide. Academic Questions, 10(1), 53-65.

“Increasingly, professors have been receiving memos of this sort from administrators. Currently more than 45,000 students with learning disabilities (LD) enter college each year, up from 19,000 in 1988, with the number of LD students graduating high school growing by more than 5 percent a year. Professors have reacted to these developments with confusion. Most have no idea what LD is and have only a vague awareness that the law is somehow relevant. Consequently they have quietly acquiesced to all requests, believing they have no legal recourse. Professors who otherwise staunchly resist any intrusions into their teaching now passively abdicate their academic freedom, allowing an administrator to decide how they shall conduct their courses. To remedy this problem, I shall describe LD, explain the legal issues, and provide a framework for thinking about the topic” (p. 53).