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THE INCLUSIVE UNIVERSITY: DISABILITY, PEDAGOGY, AND DISCIPLINES

This section focuses on resources where disability becomes a part of the curricula for many scholarly disciplines and where disability becomes part of the academic classroom. The resources also encourage inclusive strategies, and offer different perspectives including instructors and students with disabilities, and resources that especially emphasize a Disability Studies viewpoint are also included. Also of interest are resources specific to different academic disciplines whether it be where disability is infused within curricula or whether it shares experiences of individuals with disabilities within these disciplines.
Ashby, C. (2012, Summer). Disability studies and inclusive teacher preparation: A socially just path for teacher education. In M. Cosier & P. M. Ferguson (Eds.), Disability Studies and the Support of Individuals with Significant Disabilities and Their Families [Feature Issue]. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 37(2), 89-99.

This article explores the benefits and challenges of operating an inclusive elementary and special education teacher preparation program within a disability studies framework. How does such a program balance issues of theory and practice? How does it provide students with a critical approach that essentially views disability as a social and cultural category much like race and gender, with a practical approach that attempts to address, remediate or eliminate those conditions that are considered disabling? How is it possible to become a successful professional with a disability studies perspective within a field such as special education that is traditionally based around a deficit model? The article provides recommendations for how such questions might be addressed in teacher education.
Ashcroft, T. J. (2012, May). Nursing educators' perspectives of nursing students with disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/1993/5216.

This grounded theory study explored Canadian nursing educators' perspectives of nursing students with disabilities. Seventeen faculty members from four western Canadian nursing education programs participated in semi-structured interviews. Data consisted of interview transcripts, demographic forms and field notes. Data analysis was conducted as described by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Transcribed interviews were examined using a fluid and dynamic process of examination of interviews, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. the theory of producing competent graduates emerged from the data, with the central category being supporting students on the path to competent graduate. Producing competent graduates was described as a linear process, commencing when the students enter the program and culminating when they successfully complete their education. Participants believed students with disabilities could become competent graduates. The educators' perspectives of these learners was best captured by the term "wary challenge." Participants' perspectives of nursing students with disabilities were influenced by the context of nursing education programs, attributes of the nursing educator, perceived attributes of the environment and perceived student attributes. These attributes influenced how the educators worked with disabled students seeking to become competent graduates. Most learners were seen as proceeding along the path to competent graduate at a steady pace. Some students. both those with and those without disabilities, were identified as sometimes being at academic risk. Educators offered myriad supports, including developing reasonable accommodation for clinical courses. Most students returned to the path to competent graduate, while a few continued to experience difficulties. These situations compelled the nursing educators to engage in deep, deliberate consideration as they sought to balance the students' rights with the imperative of patient safety. The unique aspect of decision making when working with students with disabilities was "where do we draw the line". Recommendations for nursing education include improving faculty knowledge regarding disabilities and instituting clearer guidelines for developing and communicating accommodation in the clinical setting. Recommendations for future research include developing a better understanding of nursing educators' perspectives of disabilities and what influences those views.
Bacon, A. M., & Bennett, S. (in press). Dyslexia in Higher Education: The decision to study art. European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Increasing numbers of students in Higher Education (HE) have dyslexia and are particularly over represented in the visual and creative arts. While dyslexia has been associated with artistic talent, some applicants may perceive their academic opportunities as limited because of negative learning experiences associated with their dyslexia. This study explored how the qualitative lived experience of dyslexia was implicated in degree choice. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews with 13 arts students provided data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged which can be described under the broad headings: (1) Influence of school and family, (2) Dyslexia as a strength, (3) Having a passion for art. The data from eight students clearly suggested that they had actively chosen to study art because of a long standing interest and acknowledged talent. The others had perceived their academic options as otherwise limited. However, for all participants, studying and practising art had helped facilitate the development of a positive personal identity as an artist with dyslexia. We suggest this to be an important illustration of how access to HE can help individuals with dyslexia to achieve their potential.
Barber-Fendley, K., & Hamel, C. (2004, February). A new visibility: An argument for alternative assistance writing programs for students with learning disabilities. College Composition and Communication, 55(3), 504-535.

We argue against the metaphor of the "level playing field" and its natural coercive power; in so doing, we call for an end to the invisibility that the debate over accommodations has imposed on learning disabilities in the past decade. A literature review of LD in composition shows how this invisibility has manifested itself in our field through limited professional discussion of LD. In response, we propose not a level playing field but a new playing field altogether, a visible one that actively promotes alternative assistance for student writers with LD in first-year composition programs. We seek to show how the LD and composition fields could create a powerful partnership by serving students with LD through the principle of the liberal theory of distributive justice.

Ben-Moshe, L., Cory, R. C., Feldbaum, M., & Sagendorf, K. (2007). Building pedagogical curb cuts: Incorporating disability in the university classroom and curriculum. Syracuse, NY: Graduate School, Syracuse University. Retrieved from: http://disabilitystudies.syr.edu/resources/downloadcurbcuts.aspx.  

Covers interdisciplinary strategies to incorporate disability into classrooms, from accommodations to including disability in the general curriculum. It also suggests ways campuses can be more welcoming to scholars and students with disabilities.

The book is divided into three sections: Incorporating Disability in the Curriculum, Designing Instruction for Everyone, and Students with Disabilities in the Classroom and the chapters include:

  • Mainstreaming Disability: A Case in Bioethics
  • Language Barriers and Barriers to Language: Disability in the Foreign Language Classroom
  • Including Women with Disabilities in Women and Disability Studies
  • Seeing Double
  • Cinematically Challenged: Using Film in Class
  • “Krazy Kripples”: Using South Park to Talk about Disability
  • Teaching for Social Change
  • Nothing Special: Becoming a Good Teacher for All
  • Tools for Universal Instruction
  • “Lame Idea”: Disabling Language in the Classroom
  • Learning from Each Other: Syracuse University and the OnCampus Program
  • Being an Ally
  • Adapting and “Passing”: My Experiences as a Graduate Student with Multiple Invisible Disabilities
  • “We’re not Stupid”: My College Years as a Mentally Challenged Student
  • Crucial Communication Triangle: Students with Disabilities, Faculty and Disability Support Services
  • Signs of Inclusion: Using Sign Language Interpreters in the Classroom
  • Legal Requirements for Students with Disabilities and Universities


Berland, J. (2009). The elephant in the classroom. International Journal of Inclusive
Education, 13
(7), 699-711.

Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFE/ME) is an invisible disability that forces researchers to delineate new boundaries between illness and impairment, and between medical knowledge and patients' experience. As a neurological impairment, this condition attacks memory and cognition, which paradoxically become the focus of patients' own accounts of their experience and understanding. This paper addresses the pedagogical implications of this invisible disability. Drawing on emergent research on the social ties and social memory of elephants, this paper compares the forgetting in and about invisible disabilities with the cultures of remembering and caring exemplified by the elephant who 'never forgets'. Just as the elephant exemplifies the interdependency of social relations and memory, so teachers and administrators can acknowledge different kinds of memory and expectations of memory and social process in pedagogical environments.
Beynon, J., & Dossa, P. (2003, December). Mapping inclusive and equitable pedagogy: Narratives of university educators. Teaching Education, 14(3), 249-264.

In the research presented here, narratives of the diverse personal and professional experiences of three university educators provide fresh visions for constructing equitable and inclusive pedagogical approaches. Consideration of the narratives is guided by and contributes to understandings of three interconnected perspectives on diversity: embodiment, border crossing and dialogical.
Bolt, D. (2004). Disability and the rhetoric of inclusive higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 28(4), 353-358.

The social model of disability states that many persons have many impairments, but that it is only by the ableist society in which they live that they are disabled. In considering just how inclusive Higher Education is for said persons, this short paper proposes a long-overdue modernization of the ableist way in which undergraduates are taught. As a traditional gold standard university subject, direct reference is made to the study of English, but the conclusion will be pertinent to other disciplines. Similarly, though the paper cites the case of persons with impaired vision, the findings will be relevant to deaf people and to persons who are disabled in general.
Brueggemann, B. J., White, L. F., Dunn, P. A., Heifferon, B. A., & Cheu, J. (2001). Becoming visible: Lessons in disability. College Composition and Communication, 52(3), 368-398.

The five authors call for increased awareness of disability in composition studies and argue that such an awareness can productively disrupt notions of “writing” and “composing” at the same time it challenges “normal”/“not normal” binaries in the field. In six sections: Brueggemann introduces and examines the paradox of disability’s “invisibility”; White considers the social construction of learning disabilities; Dunn analyzes the rhetoric of backlash against learning disabilities; Heifferon illustrates how a disability text challenged her students; Cheu describes how a disability-centered writing class made disability visible; all five conclude with challenges and directions for composition studies in intersecting with disability studies.
Cadwallader, J. R. (2010). Stirring up the sediment: The corporeal pedagogies of disabilities. In A. Hickey-Moody & V. Crowley (Eds.), Disability Matters: Pedagogy, Media and Affect [Special Issue]. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(4), 513-526.

The centrality of Cartesian dualism to practices of university pedagogy obscures the role that bodily being-in-the-world plays in learning and teaching. This article uses Merleau-Ponty's account of embodiment to explore the pedagogical capacity of disability, specifically in relation to two university courses. I argue that the disabled other offers such radical difference that it intervenes, as Lévinas puts it, anachronistically, in the synchronicity of sedimentary styles of being-in-the-world. I consider the role that syncretic sociability—intercorporeality—plays in producing an incarnatory context within the classroom which challenges the ‘common sense'ness of the ableism which so thoroughly shapes institutions, customs, power, sociality, and dominant styles of being-in-the-world.
Calderwood, K., & Degenhardt, J. (2010). Accommodating a social work student with a speech impairment: The shared experience of a student and instructor. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 9(4), 235-253.

This ethnographic study describes the results of a collaborative journaling process that occurred between a student and his instructor of a second-year social work communications course. Many questions from the student's and the instructor's perspectives are raised regarding accommodating the student with a severe speech impairment in a course that specifically focuses on communication skills. Preliminary recommendations are made for social work students and professionals with communication limitations, and for social work educators.
Campbell, F. K. (2009). Medical education and Disability Studies. Journal of Medical Humanities, 30(4), 221-235.

The biomedicalist conceptualization of disablement as a personal medical tragedy has been criticized by disability studies scholars for discounting the difference between disability and impairment and the ways disability is produced by socio-environmental factors. This paper discusses prospects for partnerships between disability studies teaching/research and medical education; addresses some of the themes around the necessity of critical disability studies training for medical students; and examines a selection of issues and themes that have arisen from disability education courses within medical schools globally. The paper concludes that providing there is a commitment from senior management, universities are well positioned to apply both vertical and horizontal approaches to teaching disability studies to medical students.
Carrington, S., & Brownlee, J. (2001). Preparing teachers to support inclusion: The benefits of interaction between a group of preservice teachers and a teaching assistant who is disabled. Teaching Education, 12(3), 347-357.

A study examined how preservice teachers' attitudes toward disability were influenced by structured interactions with a disabled teaching assistant. The participants were ten students enrolled in a special education teaching elective at a large university in Australia. The participants, who took part in interviews and were required to keep journals, were exposed to sustained interactions with a teaching assistant who had cerebral palsy. Results indicated that the students developed a more positive attitude and became more comfortable in interacting with the teaching assistant during the semester and that the learning experience improved their knowledge about disability issues.
Clark, M. A. (2006). Adult education and disability studies, an interdisciplinary relationship: Research implications for adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 56(4), 308-322.

Disability studies is an emerging field of inquiry that investigates the disability experience as a socially constructed phenomenon similar to issues of race, gender, and class. However, the literature of adult education shows that we are not making these same connections. Nor are we conducting a thorough investigation of how the manifestations of the disability experience affect and/or constrain the adult learning context. This article promotes the idea of an interdisciplinary relationship between adult education and disability studies as a way to investigate the disability experience within the adult learning context. An overview of adult education and disability is provided first, along with a review of the disability studies literature, its history, tenets, and critiques. Embedded within this discussion are suggested implications for adult education practice and theory. The author concludes her discussion with possible ideas for research that she argues will create new lines of inquiry within adult education.
Connor, D., & Bejoian, L. (2007). Cripping school curricula: 20 ways to re-teach
disability. The Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 3(3), 3-13.

As instructors of a graduate level course about using film to re-teach disability, we deliberately set out to “crip” typical school curricula from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Utilizing disability studies to open up alternative understandings and reconceptualizations of disability, we explored feature films and documentaries, juxtaposing them with commonplace texts and activities found in school curricula. In doing so, we sought to challenge any simplistic notions of disability and instead cultivate knowledge of a powerful, and largely misunderstood aspect of human experience. The article incorporates twenty suggestions to re-teach disability that arose from the course. These ideas provide educators and other individuals with a set of pedagogical tools and approaches to en rich, complicate, challenge, clarify, and above all, expand narrowly perceived and defined conceptions of disability found within the discourse of schooling.
Coogan, T. (2012). Comment from the field: Transformative Difference: Disability, Culture and the Academy: Centre for Culture & Disability Studies, Liverpool Hope University. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 6(1), 103-108.

This essay reports on the author’s experiences while attending the Transformative Difference conference and his reflection that “(t)he overarching theme of the conference…was the way in which a critical engagement with disability can change research and teaching practice across disciplines. The conference was a snapshot of this “transformative difference” in progress, capturing a critical disability perspective at work in a range of areas” (p. 103). He concludes stating that the conference “…reflected, through its theme and papers, the extent to which disability studies is having an observable effect on the academy from both within and without, in an increasingly wide range of areas. Yet even as it illustrated the progress disability studies is making, it also highlighted the amount of work that remains to be done, and identified new barriers and problems to be addressed and tackled. It is, perhaps, time to take stock of what has been achieved in the area and consider where efforts might best be deployed” (p. 108). 
Coriale, L., Larson, G., & Robertson, J. (2012). Exploring the educational experience of a social work student with a disability: A narrative. Social Work Education: The International Journal, 31(4), 422-434.

This article describes the experience of Lisa, one of the co-authors, as a student with a disability completing a Bachelor of Social Work degree in Western Canada. This personal narrative of the physical, relational, attitudinal, curricular and resource aspects of Lisa's education identifies barriers experienced in the educational and practice environments, and highlights strategies that assisted in addressing these barriers. The article specifically relates Lisa's progression through the programme, including accounts of classroom and field experiences, relationships with faculty and students, resource, policy and accommodation issues, and the needs and human rights of a student with a disability. The narrative celebrates the success of a student in an environment (the university) that many believe to be more accommodating and supportive than other public and private organizations. Recommendations for both educational and social work practice organizations are provided. As a co-author of the article, Lisa was an active participant at every stage of the research and development of the article—narrative interview, analysis, identification of themes, connection to theory and literature, and presentation and final writing of the paper.
Crawshaw, M. (2002). Disabled people's access to social work education—Ways and means of promoting environmental change. Social Work Education: The International Journal, 21(5), 503-514.

Disabled people are under-represented among social workers. It is argued that this results in lack of diversity in the workforce and in reduced opportunities to make service delivery more inclusive. An audit tool is outlined which can be used to identify barriers and strengths at DipSW programme, university site, agency site and individual student level to disabled people entering social work education. Completed audits could then form the basis of DipSW Programme Development Plans or curriculum plans for individual students, as required. Review mechanisms at the different levels would help ensure that attention to planning and action does not get lost. Assessment issues and aspects of the practice teacher/student/tutor relationships are also discussed. Disability equality training is seen as a central component of audit and provision. The need for proactive, not reactive, policies is made clear.
Davidson, M., & Siebers, T. (Eds.). (2005). Papers from Conference on Disability Studies and the University, Emory University, 5–7 March 2004. PMLA, 120(1), 495-641. Retrieved from http://www.mlajournals.org/DOI/pdf/10.1632/003081205X52347.

“The Conference on Disability Studies and the University, sponsored by the MLA and Emory University, conceived itself as a response to the historical migration of disabled people to centers of higher learn¬ing…. The papers collected in this PMLA confer¬ence report are meant to provide a glimpse of future directions in the ongoing and evolving collaboration between disability studies and the humanities” (pp. 500-501).
DeLisa, J. A., & Thomas, P. (2005). Physicians with disabilities and the physician workforce: A need to reassess our policies. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 84, 5–11.

People with disabilities make up about 20% of the population, yet only a tiny fraction of matriculants to medical school have disabilities. Attempts to define core technical standards and competencies have not kept pace with technological changes, diverse specialization, and changing practice options. This has resulted in the inappropriate exclusion of some people with disabilities. Medical schools determine how any qualified applicant, regardless of physical or cognitive ability, can be effectively accommodated and counseled in achieving the most appropriate medical career. A serious effort to redefine the technical standards and core competencies of the 21st century medical education at the undergraduate and graduate levels would likely resolve many of the troubling questions regarding medical students with disabilities. We have made some recommendations to organized medicine for constructing an agenda to address these issues.
Dotger, S. (2011). Exploring new territories: My trajectory toward becoming an inclusive science teacher educator. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 12(3), 415–426.

The inclusion of individuals with disabilities in post-secondary contexts is a growing trend. Many teacher educators have experience teaching in early childhood, elementary or secondary contexts. However, most teacher educators may not have had the opportunity to experience inclusive teaching in these contexts or to experience them currently in higher education. This paper describes my experiences as a science educator when an adult with significant disabilities was my student. In order to document the complexity of this work, I discuss my initial ideas regarding individuals with disabilities. I describe how these ideas changed as a result of teaching, reading and reflection. I summarize my realizations of this process and conclude with implications for teacher educator learning and teaching inclusively.
Dunn, P. A., Hanes, R., Hardie, S., & MacDonald, J. (2006). Creating disability inclusion within Canadian schools of social work. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 5(1), 1-19.

This comprehensive research study examined how schools of social work in Canada have responded to disability issues. The study focused upon specific policies and practices of the Canadian schools of social work which have been developed to create a more inclusive environment for students, staff, and faculty members with disabilities and to prepare students for practice in dealing with individuals who are disabled. A ten page survey consisting of closed and opened-ended questions was sent to the deans and directors of the thirty-five schools of social work in Canada. This study found that although there have been significant changes in these schools over the last ten years, there are many barriers to disability inclusion from recruitment and admissions; accommodations; retention, graduation, and employment; curriculum; hiring faculty and staff with disabilities; and university relations/resources. It concludes with recommendations for schools of social work.
Dunn, P., Hanes, R., Hardie, S., Leslie, D., MacDonald, J. (2008). Best practices in promoting disability inclusion within Canadian schools of social work. Disability Studies Quarterly, 28(1). Retrieved from: http://www.dsq-sds.org/article/view/66.

The profession of social work has a long history of work with "clients" with disabilities, but unfortunately, this history often has not included strong advocacy for their rights and creating a place as colleagues within Schools of Social Work (Dunn, Hanes and MacDonald, 2003). From a critical disability perspective and a view of disability as being socially constructed, the profession and its educational institutions need to rethink their approach to students, faculty and staff with disabilities (May & Raske, 2005). Best practices in accessibility, accommodation and inclusivity will be explored within Canadian Schools of Social Work. Knowledge shared in this article was derived from a critical review of the literature, a survey of Schools of Social Work in Canada (Dunn, Hanes, Hardie, and MacDonald, 2006), and a National Best Practices conference (Dunn, Hanes, Hardie, Leslie, and MacDonald, J, 2004). Disability inclusion within Schools of Social Work is explored in five main areas: 1) recruitment and admissions; 2) accommodation; 3) curriculum; 4) field placements; and 5) retention, graduation and meaningful employment. While the specific focus is on social work education the principles and practices can be applied to other disciplines within the academy and beyond.
Edwards, W., & Scott, S. (2012, September). Teaching students with disabilities: Addressing the needs of adjunct and temporary faculty. NECTFL Review No. 70, 17-30. Carlisle, PA: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Retrieved from: http://www.nectfl.org/documents/NECTFLReview_70_000.pdf#page=17.

The growing presence of students with disabilities in higher education has been well documented. As more and more students with disabilities enroll in postsecondary foreign language classes, similarly growing numbers of adjunct instructors and other contingent, or non-tenure-track, faculty—knowledgeable in foreign language instruction but working outside the mainstream of the university—are in need of support to teach this influx of diverse learners. This paper examines the development and outcomes of Project LINC (Learning in Inclusive Classrooms), a Web resource that provides faculty development modules for part-time and temporary faculty interested in the learning needs of foreign language students with disabilities. The authors found that providing opportunities for instructors to talk about the challenges of teaching, while encouraging collaboration between campus disability offices and senior faculty, contributed to a viable and sustainable approach to supporting part-time and temporary instructors in providing inclusive foreign language learning experiences.
Elliot, H. W., Arnold, E. M., Brenes, G. A., Silvia, L., & Rosenquist, P. B. (2007, July/August). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder accommodations for psychiatry residents. Academic Psychiatry, 31(4), 290–296. Retrieved from: http://ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/31/4/290.pdf.

Objective: With the increase in diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, it is expected that more resident physicians will require accommodations so that their academic performance and clinical competency can be measured adequately. The authors provide an overview of the requirements and issues regarding the provision of ADHD accommodations for psychiatry resident physicians as well as recommendations regarding policy development in this area.

Method: The authors review the symptoms of ADHD, proper documentation of ADHD, and the rationale and legal basis for providing accommodations to resident physicians with ADHD.

Results: Executive functioning, attention, and affect regulation are three domains that could negatively affect the functioning of a resident physician with ADHD. Possible accommodations specific to each general competency are described.

Conclusions: In order to comply with existing guidelines, training programs should be proactive and have a procedure in place that 1) requires adequate documentation; 2) ensures confidentiality; 3) grants accommodations which measure core knowledge and not the limits of the disability; and 4) does not alter the core curriculum of the program.
Erevelles, N. (2005). Understanding curriculum as normalizing text: Disability studies meet curriculum theory. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(4), 421-439.

Although post‐structuralists within curriculum studies have examined many contexts of curriculum theory, they have been silent on disability. This silence is worthy of study, especially because of the growing significance of disability studies in the humanities and the social sciences. I question post‐structuralist arguments in curriculum theory from the epistemological standpoint of disability studies. I extend the post‐structuralist project of deconstructing and reinterpreting text to examine the material implications derived from interpretations of normality as a discursive construction. I ask the following questions: What are the historical, social, and economic conditions that produce the distances and inter‐relationships that exist between the ‘disabled’ and the ‘normal’ world? How do these conditions prevent scholars from providing emancipatory representations of Otherness? How can educators construct a curriculum that can produce oppositional knowledges that will contribute to the possibility of not just textual but also material and social transformation for all students?
Fox, A. M. (2010). How to crip the undergraduate classroom: Lessons from performance, pedagogy, and possibility. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 23(1), 38-46.

My work in disability performance studies has taken place within the context of a small liberal arts college over the past decade, and has been more multifaceted than I had ever expected. This essay was originally conceived as part of a panel convened at the Society for Disability Studies Conference in honor of the publication of Beyond Victims and Villains: Contemporary Plays by Disabled Playwrights (Lewis, 2006). I reference this volume, the first published collection of its kind, as a model and catalyst for defining strategies that educators wishing to incorporate disability studies into their campus community life, inside and outside of the classroom, might adopt. In the essay, I outline four such strategies and discuss them, using examples from my own experience: a) “cripping” the canon, b) “cripping” the curriculum, c) enlisting your colleagues in the performance of disability, and d) creating alternative on-campus performances of disability.
Gabel, S. L. (2001). "I wash my face with dirty water": Narratives of disability and pedagogy. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(1), 31-47.

Reflective practice and the value of reflexivity between personal experience and pedagogy are common research themes today. However, teacher candidates often report a lack of encouragement to be reflective of their experiences with disability and the ways those experiences can inform pedagogy. This article results from a year of inquiry involving 3 novice teachers with disabilities. The impact of their experiences is discussed in light of their developing pedagogical knowledge. The article concludes that for them, teaching is an encounter with the self but that their encounters are an untapped resource with rich potential for the construction of pedagogical knowledge. The article argues that teacher educators must facilitate reflection on experiences with disability as with gender, race/ethnicity, and other identity markers or lived experiences. The article includes examples of the author's attempts to make use of disability experiences in the teacher education curriculum.
Glover-Graf, N. M., & Janikowski, T. P. (2001, Summer). Career selection and use of accommodations by students with disabilities in rehabilitation education programs. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 44(4), 222-228.

The Rehabilitation Counselor Disability (RCD) Survey was administered to 186 rehabilitation students throughout the United States. Data were gathered related to disability, program awareness of disability, influence of disability upon career choice, levels of functional limitation, and use of accommodations. Most indicated moderate functional limitations, and about half required accommodations.
Hafferty, F. W., & Gibson, G. G. (2003). Learning disabilities, professionalism, and the practice of medical education. Academic Medicine, 78(2), 189-201.

The authors use the interface of learning disabilities (LDs) and medical education to explore several issues relevant to medical professionalism and the training of future physicians. First, they examine arguments given by Little (in the preceding article) that a successful suit for accommodations on a state bar exam is generalizable to LDs and medical education, and suggest ways in which this may not be true. They then explore two frameworks for understanding medical education: (1) as a process of academic achievement linked to degree attainment, and (2) as a process of professional acculturation linked to competencies. Within this dichotomy, they then explore (1) the legitimacy accorded to different types of accommodations, (2) differing meanings of a “level playing field,” and (3) the legal standard of “otherwise able.” They also examine the use of intermediaries (e.g., a reader) as a ‘‘leveling’’ strategy and how, in clinical settings, this might violate core standards of autonomous decision making. The authors investigate the nature of “technical standards” in training across medicine and nursing and find a number of differences, particularly in the intents and levels of detail of standards. Across these two domains, they observe a status hierarchy, medical hubris, and the emergence of a “right to fail” as one travels down that hierarchy. The authors also examine medicine as an undifferentiated degree and consider arguments that medical school course requirements should be unbundled. They close by insisting that medical schools have a social responsibility to shift their pedagogic gaze from identifying handicaps in individuals to understanding how the education of physicians can become, quite literally, “handicapping.”
Hagood, T. (2010). Disability Studies and American Literature. Literature Compass, 7(6), 387-396.

Disability Studies is a small but growing field of theorization regarding the role of disability in identity politics. At once local and far-reaching in its scope, it examines not only the ways disabled people are marginalized, stigmatized, and oppressed, but also the ways that all bodies fall short of culturally, politically, and economically-driven bodily ideals. This discipline has been provocatively applied to American literature, with certain very recognizable characters, such as Flannery O'Connor's wooden-legged Hulga Hopewell and Ernest Hemingway's war-wounded Jake Barnes, receiving much attention. Still, the field of Disability Studies is young, and its application to American literature can and undoubtedly will be expanded in provocative ways.
Iannacci, L., & Graham, B. (2010, Fall). Mind the gap: Destabilizing dominant discourses and beliefs about learning disabilities in a bachelor of education program. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 56(3), 274-290. Retrieved from: http://ajer.synergiesprairies.ca/ajer/index.php/ajer/article/view/823/788.  

This study explores teacher candidates’ understandings of children with special needs and learning disabilities; the effect of a special education course supporting a tutoring practicum; and how curricula can critically deconstruct and disrupt dominant, inequitable notions and practices. Data were collected through initial and end-of-course questionnaires and focus groups that took place after the course and related practica had ended. Theory-practice gaps addressed are transferable to teacher education contexts where the focus is on developing future teachers’ understandings of and responses to dis/ability in early childhood education learning environments.
Ingram, A., Pianu, E., & Welsh, R. (2007). Supporting dyslexic Scottish university hospitality students: Positive actions for the future? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(7), 606-611.

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore the issues of dyslexia and the management of learning support within two Scottish suppliers of premier HE hospitality education: Napier and QMU universities of Edinburgh.

Design/methodology/approach – This exploratory, qualitative fieldwork outlines course managers’, teachers’ and disabilities support staff perceptions of dyslexia support. Students’ views are noted, not interviewed. The paper describes the views of 12 of a sample of (eight female and four male) staff interviewees. Napier University and Queen Margaret University are post-1990 “new” universities; Napier has a larger student/staff population than QMU.

Findings – The emergent findings in this paper highlight the fact that managers, teachers and support staff operate an under-resourced and largely ad hoc system of dyslexic support, although Napier, with greater central funding, shows signs of more strategic insight with the appointment of a full-time dyslexia coordinator with strategic potential. The findings pinpoint the strengths (personal attention) of decentralised support with ambiguity problems and the need for a generic centrally coordinated support system capable of codifying tacit experience into customised support packages for hospitality students.

Research limitations/implications – The paper is a small exploratory study of the views and perceptions of dyslexia of course managers’, hospitality teachers’ and support staff from two of Edinburgh’s new universities. Both have decades of internationally respected work in hospitality education and elsewhere in higher education.

Practical implications – The fieldwork draws attention to this situation and suggests ways to make concepts of dyslexia and disability more relevant to academic hospitality managers teaching in higher education and to those practising in the field.

Originality/value – The paper examines the proposition that, while dyslexia is a condition open to support and improvement, it is for many practitioners a vague concept. What emerges from the interviews is that disability and what to do about it seems to be an attitude of mind, a question of perceptions, frames of references, intangible properties: that the essence of enhanced dyslexic support is how to do things better. Napier and QMU give valuable ad hoc examples here on which to design future practice. What is needed is a systematic approach to design, implementation and sustainability, and an understanding of the tacitly held knowledge that underpins experience-generated systems of knowledge. Bringing out such tacit and explicit notions of the complexity of perceptions of knowledge lies in future studies. 
Jung, J. (2007). Textual mainstreaming and rhetorics of accommodation. Rhetoric Review, 26(2), 160-178.

In this essay I examine the problematics of mainstreaming within one site of composition studies research, the composition anthology. Specifically, I apply articulation theory and feminist disability theory to argue that the mainstreaming of disability narratives within composition readers, when articulated with a theory of individual subjectivity, legitimizes the belief that accommodation is an individualized process. Thus accommodation becomes synonymous with fitting in, a definition that locates the responsibility for adaptation within the abnormal body rather than within the institutions and ideologies that construct it as such.
Konur, O. (2002, July). Access to nursing education by disabled students: Rights and duties of nursing programs. Nurse Education Today, 22(5), 364-374.

Access to nursing education by disabled students and the subsequent service provision for these students in nursing programmes is described as a game, using a conceptual framework by North. Different roles identified within the formal and informal legal rules, such as attitudes toward disabled students in nursing programmes throughout the UK are discussed briefly. It is noted that the rules of the game very much mirror the rules under Part II and Part III of the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) relating to disabled employees and disabled service users of public services.
Lewiecki-Wilson, C., & Brueggemann, B. J. (2007). Disability and the teaching of writing: A critical source book. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Disability and the Teaching of Writing brings together both ground-breaking new work and important foundational texts at the intersection of disability and composition studies. With practical suggestions for applying concepts to the classroom, this sourcebook helps instructors understand the issues involved in not only teaching students with disabilities but in teaching with and about disability as well.
Lewis, A. N., Brubaker, S. J., & Armstrong, A. J. (2009). Gender and disability: A first look at rehabilitation syllabi and a call to action. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 5(2), 3-14.

This study provides an overview of recent scholarship in the area of gender and disability, as well as findings from an evaluation of syllabi from five core courses in graduate rehabilitation education programs. Findings from this exploratory study revealed a need for more attention toward integration of the topic of gender and disability into rehabilitation education courses. Study results showed that in only one out of three courses where there would be a reasonable expectation to see such topics was the content actually addressed. Specific recommendations for enhancing attention to gender issues within rehabilitation education courses are offered.
Leyser, Y., & Greenberger, L. (2008, August). College students with disabilities in teacher education: Faculty attitudes and practices. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 23(3), 237-251.

Increasing numbers of students with disabilities are enrolled in post-secondary institutions. This study examined faculty attitudes and practices regarding students with disabilities in teacher education. Participants were 188 faculty in seven colleges, in Israel, who responded to a survey instrument about attitudes and practices. Faculty reported personal contact and extensive teaching experience with students with all types of disabilities - mainly those with learning disabilities, yet many had no training in the area of disabilities. A large majority reported both willingness and actual provision of classroom accommodations. More technological than instructional and testing accommodations were noted. Supportive attitudes were found towards students with disabilities in higher education and in the teaching profession. Several background variables such as contact, training, academic discipline and rank were associated with attitudes and practices. Implications for practice and cross-cultural studies are discussed.
Lindemann, K. (2011, July). Performing (dis)Ability in the classroom: Pedagogy and (con)tensions. In L. Cooks & J. T. Warren (Eds.), SomeBodies(') in School [Special Issue]. Text and Performance Quarterly, 31(3), 285-302.

Disability has become a pervasive and contested issue on college campuses, and instructors and students find themselves occupying physical and discursive spaces that hold great pedagogical potential. This essay pursues such a consideration. It examines one physically disabled student’s staged performances of a personal narrative, her ethnography of a university’s disabled student services office, an in-depth interview with the student, and the author’s family experiences with disability to illustrate the ways a performative pedagogy offers insight into (dis)ability in the classroom. The analysis illuminates the classroom as a site for identity negotiation, performance as a tool to deconstruct and reconstruct notions of ability, and family relationships as an integral part of a critical communication pedagogy.
Livingston, K. (2000). When architecture disables: Teaching undergraduates to perceive ableism in the built environment. Teaching Sociology, 28(3), 182-191. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1318988.

This article describes an exercise in which students analyze architectural barriers in campus buildings to understand that people with disabilities are excluded from everyday social interaction. Sociological concepts such as deviance and discrimination prove elusive to students when merely studied from a textbook. Through this active learning exercise, students link their experiential understanding of environmental obstacles with theories and concepts about conformity and non-conformity. In their written work, students report about access in public spaces, an understanding of obstacles imposed on people with disabilities, a connection between the physical and social environments, and deviance as a failure to meet the demands of an environment built for able bodies.
Linton, S. (1994). Reshaping disability in teacher education and beyond. Teaching Education, 6(2), 9-20.

With respect to disability, three problem areas--the academic curriculum, the civic culture, and teacher education--constitute a system that impedes the development of a more inclusive teacher education curriculum and an integrated education system. They individually and collectively function to maintain separate teacher education programs and a separated education system. In order to pass on an inclusive vision of the world in terms of disability, teacher educators must reexamine the basic assumptions that underlie their meaning of disability and the social structures they participate in that separate people on the basis of disabilities. The field of disability studies offers an epistemological framework to promote action in the civic culture and to redress the omissions in the academic curriculum. Teaching by teacher educators, political and social activism in the civic culture, and a new knowledge base in the liberal arts can reflect the political and social essence of the experience of disability.
Linton, S. (1998). Claiming disability: Knowledge and identity. New York: New York University Press.

This book makes a general case for why disability studies is important in academia, and what it can contribute to higher education and the lives of people with disabilities.
MacCurdy, A. H. (1995, Winter). Disability ideology and the law school curriculum. Boston University Public Interest Law Journal, 4, 443-457. 

“The role of disability ideology in the legal system has been less studied, though people with disabilities have experienced the brutal edge of law in nearly every legal category. As advocates, we deal every day with the ways in which legal power is used against individuals with disabilities, so the idea that disability bias is embedded in the structure of law is built into how we do our jobs. We see how rigid conceptions of competency are manipulated to deny people with disabilities control over their property, their living arrangements, and their bodies. We have learned that core values of individual autonomy, equality, and due process are left behind by "treatment" models and paternalism. We no longer question, though we each might express the point differently, that the law proceeds as if there were an identifiable standard of "ableness" that describes most of us, and justifies different treatment of everyone else, and that such a standard is myth. 

In questioning how law comes to perpetuate hierarchies that devalue people with disabilities, we at the Pike Institute were led to examine what aspiring lawyers are taught about disability. We had been contacted regarding the possibility of developing teaching materials that would expose law students to disability issues in the core courses taken by all aspiring lawyers, rather than through disability law courses with limited enrollments. The timing was fortuitous as I had just begun reading critiques of the law school curriculum for class, sex and race bias in an attempt to develop methods to evaluate the curriculum in terms of disability. The proposed project seemed the ideal vehicle for a broader critique of disability ideology in the curriculum, providing both the empirical evidence to support the critique and concrete proposals for change in the form of classroom materials. With that in mind, and armed with a three year grant, we formulated ambitious project goals which reflected the perspective of those earlier studies. Our first goal was to develop a methodology for examining and critiquing various curricula and texts. Next we would examine and critique such materials for: (1) discriminatory language, ideas, and doctrine; (2) omission of issues of importance to individuals with disabilities; (3) failure to consider the perspective of individuals with disabilities; and (4) signs of "disability consciousness," that is, an ideology of subordination of individuals with disabilities. From that examination, we would then develop supplementary materials to remedy such defects and omissions. The ultimate product, we hoped, would be teaching materials that served the purpose of integration while remaining relevant to their respective subject areas” (pp. 443-445). 
Macleod, G., & Cebula, K. R. (2009). Experiences of disabled students in initial teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(4), 457-472.

This paper reports on a survey that aimed to explore the experiences of students undertaking initial teacher education and community education degrees in a Scottish university. The survey focused in particular on decisions around disclosure of disability and experiences on 'placements' in schools or community work settings. Findings indicated that many students chose not to disclose their disability, and for those who did this was a very individual process that was made up of a series of negotiations, rather than being a one-off decision. Those students who did choose to discuss their disability during placements reported positive responses on the whole, although for a few students the demands of placement proved problematic. Implications are discussed in the context of the current disability legislation. In particular, the notion of attendance on placement as a required competence standard is considered. 
Marks, D. (1996). V. Able-bodied dilemmas in teaching disability studies. In S. Wilkinson (Ed.), Representing the Other [Special Section]. Feminism & Psychology, 6(1), 69-73.

The author discusses able-bodied instructors teaching disability studies to disabled students and in larger part, the able-bodied person’s involvement in the disability rights movement.
Matthews, N. (2009, June). Teaching the 'invisible' disabled students in the classroom: Disclosure, inclusion and the social model of disability. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(3), 229-239.

Drawing on the insights of critical disability studies, this article addresses anxieties frequently articulated by academic staff around the implementation of the United Kingdom's Disability Discrimination Act: how to accommodate the needs of students with 'hidden' impairments. Following the social model of disability, it argues that universities should avoid the use of medical labels in identifying the learning needs of disabled students, and should make efforts to institute as part of everyday practice a diversity of inclusive teaching strategies. Finally it discusses an induction activity which sought to encourage students to disclose additional learning needs to university staff while opening up a discussion around difference, diversity with the student cohort as a whole.
Matthews, N. (2010). Anxiety and niceness: Drawing disability studies into the art and design curriculum through a live brief. In A. Hickey-Moody & V. Crowley (Eds.), Disability Matters: Pedagogy, Media and Affect [Special Issue]. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(4), 527-541.

This article considers the way that affect shaped the unfolding of a curriculum initiative which aimed to expose undergraduate art and design students to the insights of critical disability studies. This initiative, funded by the Big Lottery and managed by disability charity Scope, asked students in art, design and multimedia programmes in four UK higher education institutions to engage with a live brief: to develop inclusive illustrated children's books and digital media. By focusing on the affective dimensions to this project and especially what Sianne Ngai refers to as the ‘minor emotions’ – not fear or passion or hatred, but, for example, anxiety – this article traces the way such feelings and associated ‘taste concepts’ influenced the engagements, disengagements and judgements of students, staff and the project's management.
Mayat, N., & Ladele Amosun, S. (2011, Winter). Perceptions of academic staff towards accommodating students with disabilities in a civil engineering undergraduate program in a university in South Africa. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 24(1), 53–59.

This study explored the perceptions of academic staff towards admission of students with disabilities, and their accommodation once accepted into an undergraduate Civil Engineering program in a South African university. Qualitative responses relating to the perceptions of five academic staff were obtained through semi-structured interviews. The academic staff had limited interactions with persons with disabilities prior to the study. They were also uninformed about disability issues. However they were willing to admit and accommodate students with disabilities in the undergraduate Civil Engineering program. The perceived attitudes of the academic staff towards people with disabilities, and their knowledge and awareness about disability issues may negatively impact the accommodation of students with disabilities in the program.
McGrath, R. (2010). A critical self-reflection of teaching “disability” to international business students. Journal of International Education in Business, 3(1/2), 20-33.

Purpose: This paper has been developed to explore and discuss aspects related to teaching social justice, equity and inclusive understandings to business students in an Australian university, in particular within the area of disability inclusion in business settings. This paper seeks to describe the author's journey of reflection and re-definition of disability and to serve as a case study for other academics interested in pursuing a similar path in other areas of tertiary business education.

Design/methodology/approach: This paper has adopted a self-study research approach that, through the use of reflection in and on practice, seeks to improve the practice of teachers by understanding themselves as teachers, the purpose of which is to ultimately assist in improving the education.

Findings: This paper identifies some positive outcomes of using thirdspace pedagogical teaching practices. These outcomes include the opportunity for international and local students to develop deeper understandings with respect to cultural influences concerning the conceptualisation of contested concepts as well as the opportunity for tertiary educators to further develop their knowledge and understanding of cultural diversity within specific course content.

Practical implications: This paper recommends the need to support and encourage thirdspace pedagogical teaching as a valued and useful educational approach; the need for academic teaching to proactively seek ways to include both non-western and western perspectives in teaching material; and the need for teaching academics to share and disseminate tacit teaching experiences of international students to the broader academy.

Originality/value: This paper contributes to increasing the understanding of tertiary sector pedagogical teaching practices, particularly within an internationalised curriculum setting.
Moriarty, M. (2007). Inclusive pedagogy: Teaching methodologies to reach diverse learners in science instruction. Equity & Excellence in Education, 40(3), 252-265.

This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the use of inclusive pedagogy by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty at three community colleges. The purpose was to identify barriers to the adoption of inclusive teaching methods for diverse learners and students with disabilities and to propose ways to break down these barriers. Two hundred and eleven community college STEM faculty members in Western Massachusetts were sent a questionnaire that was administered electronically, and 11 faculty members were interviewed, 9 of whom also were observed in the classroom. The most significant among the barriers reported were the lack of an inclusive mindset, lack of knowledge about pedagogy, high teaching loads, and lack of time for instructional development. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Muwana, F. C., & Gaffney, J. S. (2011, February). Service-learning experiences of college freshmen, community partners, and consumers with disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 34(1), 21-36.

A service-learning component was embedded as the centerpiece in the Culture of Disability Across the Lifespan course, designed for students’ exploration of issues related to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in all aspects of society. Participants included 19 university freshmen, 6 representatives of community agencies, and 3 consumers with disabilities. Data from focus-group discussions and interviews were triangulated with knowledge surveys, satisfaction questionnaires, reflections, and project artifacts of students. The four projects varied in their quality of implementation along four dominant themes: expectations, communication, impact, and logistics. Comparison of the students’ perceptions to those of the community partners was particularly robust. The results are illustrated by descriptions of the four projects along the dominant themes. Specific implications for future implementation of service learning in special education course work and research are outlined.
Nietupski, J., McQuillen, T., Duncan Berg, D., Weyant, J., Daugherty, V., Bildstein, S., O’Connor, A., Warth, J., & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2004). Iowa's High School High Tech Goes to College Program: Preparing students with mild disabilities for careers in technology. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 16(2), 179-192.

This paper describes an innovative approach to preparing high school students with mild disabilities for challenging careers in high tech industries, called High School High Tech (HSHT). Iowa's HSHT Goes to College program has three central elements, each of which is discussed in this paper: High School Preparation—assisting students in identifying a suitable high tech career goal; Higher Education Preparation and Supports—assisting students in selecting college/training programs that match their career goal, and in successfully completing their postsecondary programs; Workforce Entry Assistance—linking students with employers and launching their high tech careers. The paper concludes with a presentation of outcomes to date and recommendations for program enhancements. The information presented here is intended to assist education and rehabilitation professionals interested in establishing similar efforts across the nation.
Pardeck, J. T. (2001). Using the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) as a tool for helping social work faculty develop cultural competence in the area of disability. The Clinical Supervisor, 20(1), 113-125.

This article develops the theme of the importance of viewing disability as a part of cultural diversity. The ADA is offered as a tool for helping social work faculty develop cultural competence in the area of disability. Particular emphasis is placed on affirmative approaches for increasing the number of students with disabilities in social work programs. Teaching social work faculty and support staff about disability etiquette is offered with examples of various disabilities. The article encourages social work programs to offer training on disabilities for faculty and support staff.
Pardeck, J. T. (2003). Social work admissions and academic accommodations for students with disabilities. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 2(1), 79-91.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) protects students with disabilities from discrimination by academic and professional programs in higher education. A student with a disability cannot be denied admission to an educational program because of his or her disability if the student is otherwise qualified. This means that a student with a disability who is qualified for an academic or professional educational program cannot be denied admission to a program based solely on the student’s disability. This educational requirement mandated by the ADA applies to all educational fields including social work education. The purpose of this study was to explore how social work programs are dealing with these requirements in their admission and academic accommodation procedures. Twelve social work programs located in the mid-western United States participated in the study. Representatives of each of these programs were given an in-depth interview focusing on their admissions process, academic accommodations, and general topics related to social work education and disabilities. All programs taking part in the research were accredited by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). The CSWE is the national accreditation body for social work education within the United States.
Penrose, J. (1999). Using personal research to teach the significance of socially constructed categories. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 23(2), 227-240.

As the value of social construction perspectives has become increasingly clear, the notion that categories such as race, gender, sexuality and disability are constructs rather than 'givens' has become something of a truism. However, in teaching terms, my experience has been that students often pay lip service to the constructedness of categories but then go on to work with them in ways that belie any understanding of the significance of this quality or, indeed, of categories in general.
Robinson, D., & Domenici, E. (2010). From inclusion to integration: Intercultural dialogue and contemporary university dance education. Research in Dance Education, 11(3), 213-221.

It was not until the 1980s, more than half a century after modern dance became the centre of university dance programmes, that dance educators began writing about diversity issues. While some authors have addressed the importance of diversifying curricula and others have written specifically about classes they re‐visioned in a more multicultural way, few have written about how we might go about updating university dance departments in a practical way at the level of curriculum. In this article, two dance professors, one in Canada and the other in Brazil, discuss the ideological foundations of existing university dance programmes to imagine a more inclusive vision for dance education in increasingly globalized local contexts. They then share the model that they have developed for contemporary, intercultural dance curricula at the university level, which is rooted in the principles of dialogue and integration.
Roman, L.G. (2009). Disability arts and culture as public pedagogy. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(7), 667-675.

This article considers the implications of a disability arts, culture and scholarship series 'The Unruly Salon', undertaken at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver in Canada, which ran from January to March 2008. It asks how and whether the encounter of this Series with its diverse audiences makes a lasting contribution to the reshaping of education at the University of British Columbia in terms of curriculum, pedagogy, place, space and culture. It argues that The Unruly Salon Series is but a cornerstone in the groundwork for the 'global citizenship' to which the University's Trek 2010 policy and mission statement aspire. The question is not only: what have the disabled and non-disabled participants of this timely and creative series learned from about working within the 'fragile spaces between impairment and disability'?, but also the article asks: how will Canada's third largest public university learn so as to transform its intellectual, social culture and built environment for prospective and existing students, faculty and staff with disabilities? The article concludes that such social change advantages the impaired and non-disabled alike.
Seccombe, J. A. (2007). Attitudes towards disability in an undergraduate nursing
curriculum: A literature review. Nurse Education Today, 27(5), 459-465.

In the process of introducing a new disability unit into an undergraduate nursing curriculum in a New Zealand educational setting, the opportunity arose to conduct a small study comparing the attitudes of student nurses towards people with disabilities. This paper discusses the literature reviewed, which formed the basis for the study. A range of perspectives and research was identified that explored societal and nurses’ attitudes, disability studies in undergraduate nursing curricula, the impact of nurses’ attitudes on patient care, and interventions for changing those attitudes. Effective nursing care can be severely compromised through negative attitudes, and concerns are expressed at the lack of attention given to this issue in nursing curricula generally. The literature showed that combining educational approaches with opportunities for student nurses to interact with disabled people provides the most effective means for student nurses to develop positive attitudes towards disabled people. The goal for nurse educators is to ensure the inclusion of disability studies as a core component in undergraduate nursing education.
Salmon, N., & Bassett, R. (2009). Harried by Harding and Haraway: Student-mentor
collaboration in disability studies. Disability & Society, 24(7), 911-924.

Exploring the friendships of disabled youth in forthcoming doctoral research raised many unsettling questions. Members of academic and disability communities thoughtfully asked how the researcher could legitimately understand, interpret and represent the experiences of disabled youth. The initial impulse was to rely on nearly two decades of clinical practice with children and youth with disabilities; however, the futility of this strategy quickly surfaced. Uncertainty about how to proceed arose. A colleague and mentor suggested that a careful reading of Sandra Harding, Donna Haraway and Mats Alvesson and Kaj Sköldberg might provide the conceptual tools required to address these concerns. This paper presents a student's stumbling, hesitant and sometimes 'harried' attempts to grapple with their unfamiliar arguments while simultaneously exploring tentative connections with disability studies. The evolutionary cycle of queries, responses and reflections from a series of e-mails demonstrate a transition in thinking about research and representation.
Seccombe, J. A. (2007). Attitudes towards disability in an undergraduate nursing curriculum: A literature review. Nurse Education Today, 27(5), 459-465.

Through improved technology and treatment and ongoing de-institutionalisation, nurses will encounter growing numbers of people with disabilities in the New Zealand community and hospitals. Quality of nursing care is influenced by attitude and this study was to evaluate the effect of a curriculum change on the attitudes of two different streams of student nurses towards people with disabilities. During the year 2002 a focused disability unit was introduced to the revised undergraduate nursing curriculum of a major educational institution in New Zealand. The opportunity arose to consider student nurses’ attitudes toward disabled people, comparing two streams of students undertaking two different curricula. A convenience sample of students completed the attitudes toward disabled persons questionnaire form B (Yuker, H.E., Block, J.R., Younng, J.H., 1970. The Measurement of Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons. INA Mend Institute, New York), prior to and on completion of their relevant disability unit. No statistically significant difference in scores was demonstrated. A number of possible reasons for this are suggested.
Sharoni, V., & Vogel, G. (2007). Entrance test accommodations, admission and enrollment of students with learning disabilities in teacher training colleges in Israel. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(3), 255-270.

The 'Saf' (threshold) exam is the entry exam taken by approximately 40% of the students enrolled in teacher training colleges in Israel. Students with learning disabilities may apply and be granted testing accommodations on this exam. This study examines the percentage of students with testing accommodations among the testees and those who began their studies in 2003. Their test and subtest scores were compared to those of students without accommodations as were grades on high school matriculation exams. Characteristics such as gender, age, difficulties as reported in assessments and assessment history were examined. Enrollment patterns in the various colleges departments were noted. Satisfaction with the testing accommodations process was looked at as well. Ramifications and recommendations are discussed vis a vis future research needed and policies regarding the admission of students with learning disabilities to institutions of higher learning.
Shelton, M. W., & Matthews, C. K. (2001). Extending the diversity agenda in forensics: Invisible disabilities and beyond. Argumentation and Advocacy, 38(2), 121-129.

Diversity issues have become a cornerstone of higher education, and forensic activities are certainly no exception to that rule. The forensic community has made remarkable progress with often socially marginalized demographic groups, particularly women and minorities. Perhaps the next logical step would be to consider other elements of that domain, such as those with invisible disabilities.
Shier, M., Sinclair, C., & Gault, L. (2011). Challenging ‘ableism’ and teaching about disability in a social work classroom: A training module for generalist social workers working with people disabled by the social environment. Critical Social Work, 12(1). Retrieved from: http://www.uwindsor.ca/criticalsocialwork/challenging-%E2%80%98ableism%E2%80%99-and-teaching-about-disability-in-a-social-work-classroom-a-training-module-for.

Social work programs in Canada teach emerging generalist practitioners about the consequences of oppression in the lives of the clients they work with. More emphasis within social work education could be placed on practical ways of contextualizing forms of oppression as each relates specifically to practice. The following provides a description of the oppression of ‘ableism’, and offers an applied training module to help prepare generalist social workers (i.e. current students or direct practitioners) to work with issues of disability as they emerge in their direct practice with clients. The training module helps to facilitate learning specific to the leading theoretical discussions and the social context of disability within society. Through these discussions students might then become more aware of their role as practitioners in challenging the oppression of ‘ableism’, rather than maintain outdated modes of service delivery and intervention with those people disabled by the social environment.
Smith, L., Foley, P. F., & Chaney, M. P. (2008). Addressing classism, ableism, and heterosexism in counselor education. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3), 303-309. 

As the counseling profession charts its future course, issues related to classism, ableism, and heterosexism remain fully incorporated within the multicultural/social justice curriculum. The authors define each of these forms of oppression, explicate their intersections with race, and summarize the resulting implications for counseling education and training.
Stamou, A. G., & Padeliadu, S. (2009). Discourses of disability by teacher candidates: A critical discourse analysis of written responses to a disability simulation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(3), 509-540.

Despite the shift from traditional to progressive discourse among disability activists and social science academics, the former remains the dominant discourse of disability. In the present study, we examine how Greek teacher candidates, although being considerably exposed to a progressive discourse during their lectures, represent disability in the context of their disability simulations, which favor traditional discourse. The critical discourse analysis of their written accounts reveals that, in quantitative terms, teacher candidates represent disability by drawing upon both traditional and progressive discourses. Seen qualitatively, however, it appears that progressive discourse is a subjugated discourse, compared with the dominant traditional one.
Taber, E. (2011). Visions of Star Trek: Technology working for students with disabilities in college writing programs. In L. Davis & L. Stewart (Eds.), Teachers as avatars: English studies in the digital age [New Dimensions in Computers and Composition] (pp. 85-97). New York: Hampton Press, Inc.

“Due to better transition planning and available college-level support, students with disabilities—physical, communication, cognitive, and social—are entering college English classrooms in increasing numbers, and technology is following them. Although this chapter examines areas of technology that assist students with various types of disabilities, instructors need not understand the intricacies of every adaptive device in use in today’s classroom. Instead, we work in collaboration with campus disabled student developmental centers in meeting the needs of students who require accommodations. Above all, we must remember that we, not technology, drive our courses and that students with disabilities are our students” (p. 85).
Tait, K., & Purdie, N. (2000). Attitudes toward disability: Teacher education for inclusive environments in an Australian university. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 47(1), 25-38.

The Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP) was used to explore the attitudes of preservice teachers at a large Australian University to people with disabilities. Using structural equation modelling, the factor structure of the IDP Scale was tested. The best fitting model was found to be one in which there were four factors (Discomfort, Sympathy, Embarrassment, and Vulnerability) that were derived from 16 items. Although significant effects were found for type of course, age, gender, language, and frequency of contact, the magnitude of these effects was minimal. Changes in student teachers' attitudes toward disability over a one year general teacher training course were found to be minimal.
Vidali, A. (2007). Texts of our institutional lives: Performing the rhetorical freak show: Disability, student writing, and college admissions. College English, 69(6), 615-641.

Vidali explores the confluence of discourses surrounding disability, identity, and institutional writing to better understand the rhetorical politics of disability. She argues that a fresh theoretical frame is needed to understand the ways in which students rhetorically manage risky bodily identities, particularly in institutionally compelled writing.
Vidali, A., Price, M., & Lewiecki-Wilson, C. (Eds.). (2008). Disability in the Undergraduate Classroom [Special Topic]. Disability Studies Quarterly, 28(4). Retrieved from: http://dsq-sds.org/issue/view/7

“We are delighted to present this special 'back to school' issue of Disability Studies Quarterly, Disability Studies in the Undergraduate Classroom. The essays in this special issue include writing by undergraduates, undergraduate and graduate student teams, undergraduates along with their instructors, and a small number of academic pieces by professors. Many of the undergraduate papers are accompanied by pedagogical descriptions from the professors who taught the courses in which the papers were initially produced; for the longer essays abstracts appear in the Table of Contents. While we strove for consistency, we decided to highlight the interdisciplinarity of disability studies by publishing papers in their various genres and formats, and we elected to organize them, and discuss them below, according to themes and patterns, rather than by author categories. Indeed, at moments, it is hard to distinguish the undergraduate paper from the academic article. Although the Table of Contents and Introduction suggest thematic groupings, the collection as a whole can be read in any order.”
The groupings are broken down as follows:

• Part One: Introduction
• Part Two: Disability Studies as Agent of Change
• Part Three: Reflections on Disability
• Part Four: Researching and Writing a Disability Perspective
• Part Five: Writing Autism in the College Curriculum
• Part Six: Intersections with Gender and Sexuality
• Part Seven: Disability Autobiography and Representation
• Part Eight: Accessing Spaces and Histories 
Ware, L. (2001). Writing, identity, and the other: Dare we do disability studies? Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 107-123.

Although inclusive education is often characterized as a special education initiative, both general and special educators must assume responsibility for all children's learning as mandated by 1997 amendments to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. The practice and implementation of inclusion policy in both K-12 public education and teacher education necessitates close examination of many issues that extend beyond compliance concerns. This article problematizes two related aspects of inclusion reform and its implementation in practice: persistence of unexamined assumptions about disability and uninspired curriculum. The author begins with an overview of humanities-based disability studies, an emerging field of scholarship that holds great promise for reimagining disability. Then the author describes a partnership between a secondary language arts teacher and herself wherein they created and cotaught Writing, Identity, and the Other, a curriculum unit informed by humanities-based disability studies. This example provides insight to the question, Dare we do disability studies?
Walters, S. (2010, October). Toward an accessible pedagogy: Dis/ability, multimodality, and universal design in the technical communication classroom. Technical Communication Quarterly, 19(4), 427-454.

This article explores the challenges and opportunities that the rising numbers of students with disabilities and the changing definition of disability pose to technical communication teachers and researchers. Specifically, in a teacher-researcher study that combines methods from disability studies, I report on the effectiveness of multimodal and universal design approaches to more comprehensively address disability and accessibility in the classroom and to revise traditional impairment-specific approaches to disability in technical communication.
Whatley, S. (2007). Dance and disability: The dancer, the viewer and the presumption of difference. Research in Dance Education, 8(1), 5-25.

This paper aims to address two related themes. The first theme is the current provision for practical skill development for disabled dance students within Higher Education in the UK, and the extent to which inclusive pedagogical approaches challenge conceptions of the disabled body, both within and beyond dance. The second theme draws on the first as a basis for discussion and explores ways of seeing and interpreting the dance and in particular the different strategies and resources the viewer draws upon when viewing the disabled dance performer. These themes have emerged from a recently completed period of research, conducted with my own staff and students at Coventry University, which has focused predominantly on the experience of disabled dance students, the development of an inclusive curriculum framework and the different ways in which students learn dance techniques in class.
White, L. F. (2002). Learning disability, pedagogies, and public discourse. College Composition and Communication, 53(4), 705-738.

“I analyze the public and professional discourse of learning disability, arguing that medical models of literacy misdirect teaching by narrowing its focus to remediation. This insight about teaching is not new; resurgent demands for behaviorist pedagogies make understanding their continuing appeal important to composition studies” (p. 1).
Wilson, J. C. (2000). Making disability visible: How disability studies might transform the
medical and science writing classroom. Technical Communication Quarterly, 9(2), 149-161.

This article describes how disability studies can be used in a medical and science writing class to critically examine the assumptions of scientific discourse. An emerging, interdisciplinary field, disability studies draws on feminist, postmodern, and post-colonial theory and extends their critiques to the medicalization of disability. Deconstructing the medical model of disability helps students understand how science is socially constructed. After conceptualizing disability studies, this essay discusses sample disability-related classroom activities, readings, and writing assignments.
Wood, T., Price., M., & Johnson, C. (2012, March). Disability Studies [WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 19]. Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA). Retrieved from: http://comppile.org/wpa/bibliographies/Bib19/DisabilityStudies.pdf.

“This bibliography emphasizes pedagogical research, aiming to offer work that will be of help to writing program administrators and professors of writing. It should be noted, however, that DS research does not offer tips on how to “fix” or “deal with” disabled students; indeed, such an agenda countermands the central philosophy of DS, which is that classrooms, contexts and settings are in need of “fixing,” rather than individual people” (p. 1).
Yu, B., & Epstein, L. (2011, June). Facilitating critical reflections about disability among students in speech-language pathology. Perspectives on Issues in Higher Education, 14, 11-20.

Disability scholars argue that it is crucial for clinical professionals to critically examine the dominant and alternative discourses about disability, reflect on their own assumptions about disability, and contemplate the different roles they might take in relation to their patients. To date there are few studies examining how disability is conceptualized by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), or how those ideas affect their approach to working with persons with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether shifts in the teaching approaches along medical, social, and experiential continua had an impact on how students in a Communicative Disorders course conceptualized the nature of developmental communicative disorders and the roles of the SLP in working with children with developmental communicative disorders. Reflective essays were collected and analyzed for 22 graduate and 38 undergraduate students in an introductory course on developmental communication disorders where different ways of thinking about disability were introduced over the course of a semester. The findings showed that most students at the start of the class held beliefs that were strongly aligned with the medical model of disability. It also showed that being introduced to different disability frameworks led them to reconceptualize both the notion of developmental communication disorders and SLP roles vis-à-vis children with communication disorders. Finally, the findings highlighted complexities and tensions involved in issues of disability in the clinical context. These results support the need for a systematic infusion and critical examination of disability perspectives in Communicative Disorders curricula.