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Compiled by Pam Walker
National Resource Center on Supported Living and Choice
Center on Human Policy
Syracuse University
805 South Crouse Avenue
Syracuse, NY 13244-2280

August 1999

Although it has not been revised recently, this information package may continue to be extremely useful to people who are concerned about supports and services for people with disabilities. Please contact the Center on Human Policy if you would like updated information on this topic.

This information package includes reprints that we are unable to produce here on our web site. We have indicated contact information for each resource, or you can obtain a complete copy of this information package by contacting the Center on Human Policy.

The preparation of this information package was supported in part by the National Resource Center on Supported Living and Choice, Center on Human Policy, School of Education, Syracuse University, through the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), through Contract No. H133A990001. No endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred.

Acknowledgement is given to Betsy Edinger, Karen Bradley, Bruce Hodgkiss, Felicia Castricone, Debbie Pawlewitz, and Jennifer McKee for their contributions to the material contained in this packet. Thanks are also given to Rachael Zubal for her assistance in the preparation of this packet.


Part I: Overview and Introduction
Part II: Reprints
  • The Kid From Cabin 17
  • Camp Talooli: An example of collaboration between a camp and a human service organization
  • A sense of belonging: Integration in recreation and leisure-time activities
  • Promoting inclusive recreation and leisure opportunities for adults
Part III: Annotated Bibliography on Recreation and Leisure Opportunities



Recreation and leisure activities are a critical dimension of the quality of life for all people, including those with developmental disabilities. There are a vehicle through which people have fun, meet new friends, and develop skills and competencies. Yet, traditionally, recreation/leisure activities are given low priority as an area in which support and assistance are provided. Many people are still limited to segregated recreation and leisure choices. When other opportunities are offered, they often involve taking groupings of people with disabilities to large public settings (e.g., malls, theaters, restaurants), while very little support is offered for individualized participation in community settings that offer greater opportunities for social connections and relationships. While not all people with disabilities need support to participate in recreation and leisure activities, others, particularly those with more severe disabilities, may not have any access to integration recreation and leisure unless supports are available.
In the recent past, an increasing number of human service agencies have been placing an emphasis on supporting children and adults with disabilities in a wide range of community recreation/leisure activities and settings, on an individualized basis. At the same time, more community organizations and settings have opened their doors, in inclusive and supportive ways, to participants with disabilities. This information package highlights some of these efforts. It includes a brief overview of key issues in supporting people to be involved in integrated recreation and leisure, including: identifying interests, identifying community resources, support strategies, facilitating friendships, and collaboration between human service and community organizations. This overview is followed by copies of selected articles describing examples of inclusion in recreation/leisure activities and discussing issues related to this. Finally, the packet contains an annotated bibliography.

Identifying Interests: Getting to Know the Person

In figuring out how best to assist a person to become involved in recreation and leisure activities, it is important to begin by getting to know the person (Walker, 1994; Walker, Edinger, Willis, & Kenney, 1988). This involves spending time with the person, and possibly with others who know him or her well, in order to learn about the person's family; his or her background; experiences; racial, cultural, and/or ethnic identifications; customs; traditions; strengths; likes or dislikes; and so forth.

Some people will have had very limited opportunities to try a variety of activities in different settings with different people. Families may be hesitant about inclusion because of past experiences in which there was inadequate support either for physical participation and/or for social interactions and relationships within the context of participation. Based upon past messages from professionals, families may worry that their son or daughter will have nothing in common with peers without disabilities. Some individuals with disabilities may have difficulty communicating ideas about potential interests. Thus, exploration of interests takes time, exploring and trying out different activities and settings.

Over time, however, one can begin to "discover interests" of a person which might be further developed or pursued through recreation and leisure involvements. O'Brien and Lyle (1987) speak to the importance of interests:

Interests link the personal and the social. They express individual gifts, concerns, and fascinations and call for activities, information, and tools. Shared interest founds associations. People point to interests when they describe what gives their lives meaning. (p. 6)

Over time, people may establish a "leisure identity" (McGill, 1987). This involves developing an interest to the extent that it becomes one of the primary defining characteristics of a person.

Community Resources: Knowing Your Community

In order to assist people to become involved in recreation/leisure activities, one must be aware of what opportunities or possible opportunities exist within the neighborhood and community (Center on Human Policy, 1990; Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, 1988). This involves: (a) finding out about use of various neighborhood and community places (who uses them, when, for what purposes); (b) finding out about local organizations and associations (where and when do they meet, what does it mean to be a member, etc.); and (c) finding out where people go and what people do who are of various ages, genders, racial/ethnic groups, religious affiliations, share similar interests, and so forth. This type of information can be gathered through means such as: observation of people and settings, through spending time in the neighborhood; reading community newspapers, bulletin boards, and directories; and talking to a variety of people who know something about the neighborhood and/or community.

Supporting People in Integrated Recreation and Leisure Activities

In order to best assist people to participate in integrated settings, it may be necessary to provide some supports or accommodations. Supports must be both individualized and flexible (Schleien, Ray, & Green, 1997; Taylor, Knoll, & Biklen, 1987; Walker & Edinger, 1988; Walker, Edinger, Willis, & Kenney, 1988); both the types and levels of support should be based on the needs and desires of the particular person. These supports should fit into the rhythms and routines of the setting or activity. There are many different types of possible supports and accommodations; many of these will benefit all participants, not just those with disabilities (Komissar, Hart, Friedlander, Tufts, & Paiewonsky, 1997).
Support can involve such things as physically assisting the person to be part of the activity, and/or assisting him or her to be a part of social interactions (this is discussed in more detail in the section on "Facilitating Friendships"). It can involve helping the person acquire particular skills and competencies, adaptation of part or all of an activity, and/or use of adaptive devices and equipment.

Support can sometimes be provided by someone who is already present within a specific setting (e.g., the regular camp counselors and counselors-in-training might be able to support a camper with disabilities by building in an extra counselor for their unit at camp), or it can be provided by someone who comes into the setting, on a short term or ongoing basis, specifically for that purpose. In this case, it is important to remember that the support person need not necessarily have a background in the field of developmental disabilities; rather, it might be more important that the person knows about and enjoys the activity and is able to spend time and be creative in figuring out best to support the person (with consultation from parents, and/or those in the disability field when and where needed). Related to this, it is important for this person providing support to involve him- or herself with others in the setting, not just the person with a disability. On this basis, he or she can act as a link through which others can get to know and interact with the person, as well.

Support need not entail always being directly at the person's side, as this may result in isolating the person from others in the setting (for example, an adult who supports a child with disabilities in a setting with other children may serve as a barrier to other children feeling free to interact with the child). Collette Savard (1988, pp. 39-40) writes about the dilemmas related to this in assisting her teenage son, Olivier. "Seventeen-year olds do not want adults 'hanging around' with them. It becomes a vicious circle. Until Olivier builds close relationships with his peers he will need to be accompanied by adults, but while he is being accompanied by adults he is not likely to build close relationships with his peers."

Facilitating Friendships

Many recreation and leisure activities offer opportunities for meeting others, engaging in social interactions, and developing friendships. It is often these relationships that make leisure activities most meaningful. Therefore, a key component of support involves assisting children and adults to have social interactions and relationships (Heyne, Schleien, & McAvoy, n.d.; Schleien, Ray, & Green, 1997). This may entail some level of bridgebuilding or facilitating; that is, intentionally creating and supporting social interactions between the person with disabilities and others. There are no set rules to follow; bridgebuilding must be a individualized, creative effort, based upon a close relationship between the bridgebuilder and the person he or she is supporting, and upon the particular circumstances or setting (Mount, Beeman, & Ducharme, 1988).

Working Together: Collaboration Between Human Service Agencies and Community Agencies/Organizations

In order to enhance the possibilities for inclusion for children and adults, it is important that human service agencies, and community agencies and organizations collaborate with each other and with families in their efforts (Moon et al., 1994; Schleien, Ray, & Green, 1997). This may mean taking on new roles. For example, for human service agencies, it involves shifting away from operation of their own recreation program, to one of facilitating participation in community recreation and leisure activities and programs. This may entail: a willingness to learn from community agencies about their ways of doing things; providing consultation and technical assistance to community agencies and organizations; providing staff support for people with disabilities to participate in community activities; providing information for families about community resources and programs and assisting in advocating for inclusion; and offering funding or other resources to community agencies to support the inclusion of participants with disabilities. For community agencies and organizations, it may involve: an organization-wide commitment to inclusion; a willingness to take over increased responsibility, from disability service agencies, for promoting inclusion--including community outreach and contact with families; staff support and training, where needed; and contribution of financial and other resources toward inclusion efforts.


With supports available to them, children and adults with severe developmental disabilities can choose to participate in a full range of community recreation and leisure activities based upon their personal interests and desires. The next section of this information packet contains a number of articles with examples of supports for inclusion. A final section contains an annotated bibliography of resources on integration recreation.


Center on Human Policy. (1990). A guide to knowing your community. CTAT Field Report, 1(1), 8-9.

Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University and Department of Rehabilitation Services, State of Illinois. (1988). Getting connected: How to find out about groups and organizations in your neighborhood. Springfield, IL: Author.

Heyne, L.A., Schleien, S.J., & McAvoy, L.H. (n.d.). Making friends: Using recreation activities to promote friendship between children with and without disabilities. Minneapolis: Institute on Community Integration.

Komissar, C., Hart, D., Friedlander, R., Tufts, S., & Paiewonsky, M. (1997). Don't forget the fun: Developing inclusive recreation. Boston: Institute for Community Inclusion.

McGill, J. (1987). Our leisure identity. entourage, 2(3), 23-25.

Moon, M.S., Hart, D., Komissar, C., Friedlander, R., Stierer, C.L., & Johnson Brown, P. (1994). The community leisure facilitator. In M.S. Moon (Ed.), Making school and community recreation fun for everyone (pp. 17-32). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Mount, B., Beeman, P., & Ducharme, G. (1988). What are we learning about bridge-building? Manchester, CT: Communitas, Inc.

O'Brien, J., & Lyle O'Brien, C. (1987). Framework for accomplishment. Lithonia, GA: Responsive Systems Associates.

Savard, C. (1988). Taking part in the dream. In G. Allan Roeher Institute (Ed.), The pursuit of leisure: Enriching lives with people who have a disability (pp. 39-42). Downsview, Ontario: G. Allan Roeher Institute.

Schleien, S. J., Ray, M. T., & Green, F. P. (1997). Community recreation and people with disabilities: Strategies for inclusion (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Schleien, S. J., Rynders, J. E., Heyne, L. A., & Tabourne, C. E. S. (1995). Powerful partnerships: Parents and professionals building inclusive recreation programs together. Minneapolis: School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.

Taylor, S. J., Knoll, J., & Biklen, D. (1987). Community integration for persons with severe disabilities. New York: Teachers College.

Walker, P. (1994). Promoting inclusive recreation and leisure opportunities for adults. In M.S. Moon (Ed.), Making school and community recreation fun for everyone (pp. 163-180). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Walker, P., & Edinger, B. (1988). The kid from Cabin 17. Camping Magazine, pp. 18-21.

Walker, P., Edinger, B., Willis, C., & Kenney, M.E. (1988). Beyond the classroom: Involving students with disabilities in extracurricular activities at Levy Middle School. Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy.



This section contains materials that provide examples of supporting children and adults in inclusive recreation and leisure activities, and that discuss strategies, challenges and other related issues.

TITLE: Modifying rules of a regular girls softball league to facilitate the inclusion of a child with severe disabilities

AUTHORS: Bernabe, E.A., & Block, M.E.


Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 19(1), 24-31.

Although many local recreation programs are opening their doors to individuals with disabilities, the vast majority of individuals with more severe disabilities still do not participate in community-based recreation programs. One reason for lack of participation, particularly in competitive team sports, is that many persons with severe disabilities lack the requisite physical and motor skills. The purpose of this study was to determine if it were possible to assist coaches and players in modifying select rules of a girls' fast-pitch softball league so as to accommodate the skill limitations of a player with moderate to severe disabilities. Results indicated that the modifications were effective as suggested by her batting average and on-base average. Furthermore, modifications did not seem to affect her teammates or other teams as noted by no differences in time per inning when this student was included or total number of bases when she was playing defense. Anecdotal reports also found that the player was well received by her teammates and other teams, and that she improved her social and sports skills.

TITLE: Inclusive leisure services: Responding to the rights of people with disabilities

AUTHOR: Dattilo, J.


Venture Publishing
1999 Cato Avenue
State College, PA 16801

The intent of this book is to encourage providers of leisure services to promote inclusion of people with disabilities into their programs. It is divided into three sections. The first section is devoted to awareness of important concepts. The second section presents readers with the Americans with Disabilities Act and specific strategies to facilitate compliance with the spirit of the Act. The final section introduces readers to people with disabilities and methods of including them in community leisure services.

TITLE: Understanding leisure services for individuals with mental retardation

AUTHORS: Dattilo, J., & Schleien, S.J.


Mental Retardation, 32(1), 53-59.

This paper was developed to promote understanding of the complex process of leisure service delivery for children and adults with mental retardation and encourage people to work together to enhance leisure opportunities in integrated settings. The meaning of several terms associated with leisure were clarified and limitations of past and existing leisure services presented. They discussed the belief that all individuals, including those with mental retardation, have the right to experience leisure. Suggestions were made for development of leisure services involving social integration with peers who do not have mental retardation, the facilitation of active participation, development of age-appropriate behaviors, provision of comprehensive leisure education services, encouragement of self-determined leisure participation, and systematic coordination and communication among practitioners and family members.

TITLE: The pursuit of leisure: Enriching lives with people who have a disability

AUTHORS: Gold, D., & McGill, J. (Eds.)


The G. Allan Roeher Institute
4700 Keele Street, Kinsmen Building
York University
Downsview, ON M3J 1P3

This book is a collection of short chapters on integrated recreation and leisure for people with disabilities. It includes articles which provide strategies for service providers to promote integrated recreation opportunities, and articles about recreation and leisure by both persons labeled as disabled and their parents. The chapters explore a range of issues, including: the development of "leisure identities" (reprint of an article by Judith McGill); integration through community associations and organizations; "regenerating community" (reprint of a paper by John McKnight); promoting cooperative versus competitive play; and leisure and friendships.

TITLE: Leisure connections: Enabling people with a disability to lead richer lives in the community

AUTHORS:Gold, D., & Crawford, C.


The G. Allan Roeher Institute
York University, Kinsmen Building
4700 Keele Street
Downsview, ON M3J 1P3

This manual provides many useful ideas and strategies for promoting integrated leisure and friendship opportunities for people with disabilities. Emphasis is placed on the importance of leisure in people's lives, based on a broad definition of leisure as including activities with others or alone, and activities that are more formal and organized as well as those that are informal and/or spontaneous. The authors also focus on the importance of friendships in people's lives, and the idea that it is people's relationships with others that give the most meaning to their leisure experiences.

The manual is designed for use by support groups or circles convened to assist a person with disabilities develop and/or increase his or her leisure opportunities and connections. It outlines a 10-step process, which can be used to assist either children or adults. The recommended role of friends and other supports is one of a "facilitator" of increased connections and activities.

The 10 steps include thought-provoking questions and exercises to help guide group strategizing and planning. They focus on issues such as: thinking about the nature of leisure and the role it plays in everyone's lives; assisting the person to express wishes or dreams; developing a collective vision with the person; brainstorming about leisure options for the person, beyond just "programs" or classes; preparing for challenges that may be encountered; and on-going support and planning to increase and maintain leisure connections. The appendices contain additional information and ideas about the nature of friendship, as well as a sample listing of the many possible types of leisure opportunities can be found in a single community.

TITLE: Everybody belongs: Tips for including your child in community recreation

AUTHOR: Hackett, L. K.


New Hampshire Developmental Disabilities Council
10 Ferry Street, Unit 315
Concord, NH 03301-5004

Written by a parent of a child with a developmental disability, this book begins with discussion about the importance of recreation for everyone. It then discusses the law (ADA and IDEA) in relation to recreation. Subsequent chapters give suggestions and strategies for identifying your child's interests, identifying appropriate recreation programs, after-school recreation and summer recreation ideas, developing new activities when something it not available, and strategies to help develop and support friendships. While the resources listed in the appendix are specific to New Hampshire, the strategies and suggestions presented throughout will be useful for anyone wishing to promote increased opportunities for recreation.

TITLE: Integrating children and youth with disabilities into community recreation agencies: One agency's experience and recommendations

AUTHORS:  Heyne, L. A., Amado, R. S., & Denelle, D.


The Jewish Community Center of the
Greater St. Paul Area
1375 St. Paul Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55116

Since 1984, the Jewish Community Center of the Greater St. Paul area has conducted a model demonstration project to integrate children and youth with disabilities into the Center's regular programs and classes. The goals of the integration efforts have been three-fold: (a) to develop socialization and friendships between youngsters with and without disabilities; (b) to teach new recreation and leisure skills; and (c) to provide opportunities for children and youth with disabilities to participate in normalized, everyday community activities.

This monograph contains information about integration at the Center in the following areas: rationale for integration; background to the project; funding; practical, step-by-step description of the integration process; networking with other community organizations; suggestions for managing challenging behaviors; Board of Directors and lay committee input and involvement; problems encountered and solutions generated; project outcomes; and forms for intake and evaluation. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the benefits of integration for all children, not only those with disabilities.

There is a wealth of information presented here about strategies for providing supports to children and youth with disabilities in a way that facilitates and enhances integration. It should be very useful for other agencies or individuals who are interested in promoting integration in recreation and leisure activities.

TITLE: IMPACT: Feature issue on inclusive recreation and families

AUTHORS:Heyne, L. A., Schleien, S. J., & Rynders, J. E.


Institute on Community Integration
University of Minnesota
109 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive, SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

This issue of IMPACT focuses on inclusive recreation for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. The articles included provide information about the benefits of inclusive recreation for individuals and families, the challenges in attempting to create or access community recreation services that offer inclusive programs, and strategies that can be used by parents in seeking out and advocating for quality inclusive programs for theirs sons and daughters who have developmental disabilities.

TITLE: Making friends: Using recreation activities to promote friendship between children with and without disabilities

AUTHORS: Heyne, L.A., Schleien, S.J., & McAvoy, L.H.


School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies
Institute on Community Integration
University of Minnesota
109 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive, SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

This handbook is the result of a 3-year program, the Dowling Friendship Program, which sought to understand and encourage friendships between children with and without disabilities, and a statewide survey of 484 community recreation agencies across Minnesota to identify inclusive recreation strategies.

Chapters cover issues such as, "What Friendships Mean for Children," "What Inhibits Friendships," "How to Encourage Friendships," and "How to Facilitate Friendship Development in Recreation Activities."

TITLE: Trying to play together: Competing paradigms in approaches to integration through recreation and leisure

AUTHOR: Human Services Research Institute


Human Services Research Institute
2336 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02140

This monograph presents the results of a study of the recreational experiences of 12 people with disabilities. The first part provides an overview and methodology for the study; the second part presents individual case studies; and the third part contains concluding discussion and analysis. This study sought to discover what factors promote successful community integration within recreational and leisure settings. What emerged from the case studies was the interaction of and often contest between two distinct approaches--the recreational paradigm and the community membership paradigm. To the extent that the recreational approach was dominant, a platform for social integration was sometimes put in place. The realization of personal membership and relationships, however, seldom occurred. In those case studies in which the community membership approach was widely shared and understood, an impressive level of community integration was achieved within recreational settings and organizations.

TITLE: Leisure, integration and community

AUTHORS: Hutchinson, P., & McGill, J.


Leisurability Publications, Inc.
Parks and Recreation Ontario
1185 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 406
North York, ON M3C 3C6

This is a comprehensive textbook on leisure integration. It begins with an introduction that ties together issues of community and leisure. Subsequent chapters cover topics such as: devaluation and life experiences, person-centered approach to supporting people, new social roles, friendship, perspectives on community, empowerment, community building and community organizing, planning for change, coordination of services and supports, and educating for change. The book is a good resource for colleges and universities, as well as for people involved in facilitating integrated community leisure opportunities.

TITLE: IMPACT: Feature issue on integrated outdoor education/leisure

AUTHOR Institute on Community Integration


Institute on Community Integration
University of Minnesota
109 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive, SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

This newsbulletin describes successful approaches to outdoor education and high adventure in which persons with and without disabilities share the rewards of experiencing nature and of meeting challenges with a group of supportive peers. The benefits of integrated outdoor programs are discussed, and steps are identified toward developing and maintaining quality integrated options. A number of program examples are provided.

TITLE: IMPACT: Feature issue on integrated leisure and recreation

AUTHOR: Institute on Community Integration


Institute on Community Integration
University of Minnesota
109 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive, SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

This newsbulletin contains brief articles describing indicators of quality integrated recreation programs; questions to assist in evaluating and selecting integrated recreation programs; strategies for parents as advocates; and features of several integrated recreation programs.

TITLE: Don't forget the fun: Developing inclusive recreation

AUTHORS: Komissar, C., Hart, D., Friedlander, R., Tufts, S., & Paiewonsky, M.


Project REC
Institute for Community Inclusion
Children's Hospital
300 Longwood Ave.
Boston, MA 02115

The purpose of this guide is to provide individuals with general ideas for advocating for, providing, and participating in inclusive community recreation. It is organized into eight sections, which contain an introduction to the topic, as well as various materials and exercises that can be used to train others. Topics include: attitudes and awareness; building local teams; relevant laws and their applicability to community recreation; strategies for making accommodation, including many case study examples and exercises to help people think creatively; activities ideas; developing supports; developing volunteer and peer support; and additional resources.

TITLE: Making school and community recreation fun for everyone

AUTHOR: Moon, M. S. (Ed.)


Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This book begins with an overview of the case for inclusive school and community recreation. This is followed by Section One--Getting Started. The three chapters in this section describe strategies for successful inclusion in recreation programs, including community leisure facilitation and ways to find and create fun within a community. Section Two--Legal and Technical Supports discusses the impact of federal legislation on recreation programs, including environmental, material, and procedural adaptations to promote accessibility. The three chapters in Section Three--Ages and Settings: Inclusion Across the Life Span cover information on commercially available toys, inclusion of children in physical education, and strategies to promote inclusive recreation and leisure opportunities for adults. The fourth section, Inclusion in Action, describes additional examples of inclusive programs and strategies to promote inclusion. Throughout this book, the text is accompanied by an abundance of tables and figures offering detailed information and serving as useful tools for those for involved in creating inclusive recreation opportunities.

TITLE: SCOLA leisure activity fun guide



SCOLA of Ramsey County and the Minnesota
Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities
St. Paul, MN

This booklet describes the SCOLA (School and Community = Opportunities for Leisure Action) project, a joint effort between school, students, parents, leisure services providers, and other interested community members. The focus of this project is on teens who are in their transition years (14-21 years of age). It includes information about identifying leisure interests, steps toward inclusion, forming an advisory committee, involving a community leisure planner, planning with parents and care providers, and training leisure services staff.

TITLE: Together successfully: Creating recreational and educational programs that integrate people with and without disabilities

AUTHOR: Rynders, S. E., & Schleien, S. J.


The Arc
500 East Border Street, Suite 300
Arlington, Texas 76010

The first chapter of this monograph presents the mandate for integration and discusses the importance of integrated options. Chapter 2 provides guidelines for promoting positive interactions. The next chapter offers many types of adaptations, with case studies to illustrate, while sample activity plans are presented in Chapter 4. The monograph concludes with a discussion of traits of quality integrated programs and profiles of several specific programs.

TITLE: Improving educational outcomes for children with and without severe disabilities through cooperatively structured recreation activities: A synthesis of research

AUTHORS: Rynders, J.E., Schleien, S.J., Meyer, L.H., Vandercook, T.L., Mustonen, T., Colond, J.S., & Olson, K.


The Journal of Special Education, 26(4), 386-407.

The use of cooperative learning strategies within integrated recreational activities has proven to be a powerful combination in facilitating the inclusion of children with and without disabilities. This article offers a synthesis of research in this area, addressing five interrelated questions with experimental findings that should assist program leaders to plan, direct, and sustain successful inclusionary recreation programs.

TITLE: Access and inclusion in community leisure services

AUTHOR: Schleien, S.J.


Parks & Recreation, 28(4), 66-72.

This article emphasizes the importance of creating environments that are both physically barrier-free and socially barrier-free, and it describes strategies and steps toward achieving these goals. Case studies are provided for illustration.

TITLE: Building positive social networks through environmental interventions in integrated recreation programs

AUTHORS: Schleien, S.J., Fahnstock, M., Green, R., & Rynders, J.E.


Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 24(4), 42-52.

This article presents three strategies for including persons with disabilities into integrated community recreation programs. Sociometry is presented as a strategy for restructuring groups to promote the inclusion of isolated individuals. Circle of friends techniques prepare existing groups for the introduction of new members. Cooperative learning methods are used to promote positive interactions between group members.

TITLE: Best professional practices: Serving persons with severe multiple disabilities

AUTHORS: Schleien, S.J., Light, C., McAvoy, L., & Baldwin, C.


Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 23(3), 27-40.

This article presents a process of networking among professionals, service agencies, and families, and the use of "best professional practices" in leisure skills programming for persons with severe multiple disabilities. Practices which are highlighted include: needs/preferences assessment, instructional programming, adaptations/modifications, and maintenance/generalization.

TITLE: Integrated outdoor education and adventure programs

AUTHORS: Schleien, S. J., McAvoy, L., Lais, G., & Rynders, J.


302 West Hill Street, P.O. Box 647
Champaign, IL 61824-0647

This book focuses on preparing individuals and environments for successful experiences in the outdoors. This text is about long-term, systemic change that is necessary so that people of all abilities and ages, including those individuals who significantly challenge the service delivery system, will be participating members of outdoor education and adventure settings. This practical, "how-to" guide takes an informative look at the integration process and presents a comprehensive framework for the provision of quality programs and activities. It offers a compelling rationale for the integration of outdoor education and high adventure. It also describes explicit administrative and programmative guidelines for simplifying the creation and implementation of successful inclusive services for people with and without disabilities.

TITLE: Powerful partnerships: Parents and professionals building inclusive recreation programs together

AUTHORS: Schleien, S. J., Rynders, J. E., Heyne, L. A., & Tabourne, C. E. S.


School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies
Institute on Community Integration
University of Minnesota
109 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive, SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

This monograph documents the efforts of parents and advocates working together to create inclusive recreation opportunities. Part one reviews the history of recreation in America and discusses the importance of inclusive recreation and the family's role in this. Chapters in Part Two describe family advocacy, family interaction with and collaboration with the serve system, and issues related to building friendships through recreation. Part Three provides descriptions of several inclusive programs, including a school-based friendship program, Parks and Recreation, a family-centered recreation program, and an intergenerational program at a neighborhood center. Finally, Part Four offers a vision for future inclusion in community leisure services.

TITLE: Community recreation and people with disabilities

AUTHORS: Schleien, S. J., Ray, M. T., & Green, F. P.


Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This book begins with an overview of the historical background and philosophical basis of integrated recreation. Various chapters in the book provide detailed strategies for creating opportunities for inclusive recreation. One chapter focuses specifically on issues of bridges between families and community leisure service providers; another chapter focuses on promoting friendships in the context of recreation/leisure activities. Chapter 8 provides information and discussion on evaluating community recreation programs, and Chapter 9 the authors offer descriptions of a number of exemplary programs. Extensive appendices provide a leisure interest survey, building access survey, directory of national organizations, evaluation forms, and an annotated bibliography.

TITLE: Facilitating integration in recreation environments

AUTHORS Schleien, S.J., Rynders, J.E., & Green, F.P.


In M.F. Hayden & B. Abery (Eds.) Challenges for a service system in transition: Ensuring quality community experiences for persons with developmental disabilities (pp. 121-146). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This chapter begins with a historical and legislative overview of community recreation services. The next section outlines varied approaches to integration, discussing advantages and disadvantages of each. Following is a discussion of specific strategies to promote inclusion, an agenda for future research, and the importance of promoting friendships.

TITLE: Recreation patterns of adults with intellectual disabilities

AUTHORS: Sparrow, W.A., & Mayne, S.C.


Therapeutic Recreation Journal, pp. 45-49.

This study investigated the recreation patterns of persons with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities aged 18-35 years. Results showed that the respondents participated in home-based recreation only 10% more frequently than in community-based recreation. Differences between actual and ideal recreation patterns were attributed to negative attitudes on behalf of the community at large, lack of availability due to distance and transportation, skill deficiencies, financial constraints, and lack of opportunity.

TITLE: The kid from Cabin 17

AUTHORS: Walker, P., & Edinger, B.


Camping Magazine, pp. 18-21.

This article focuses on the integration of one child with severe and multiple disabilities at a camp. It describes strategies used to assist him to participate in camp activities and to promote interaction with other campers and camp staff. It concludes with some lessons learned from this experience.

TITLE: Beyond the classroom: Involving students with disabilities in extracurricular activities at Levy Middle School

AUTHORS:Walker, P., Edinger, B., Willis, C., & Kenney, M. E.


Center on Human Policy, Syracuse University
805 S. Crouse Avenue
Syracuse, NY 13244-2280

This report describes efforts to involve students with severe disabilities from one classroom in extracurricular activities within their middle school. Students participated in activities such as intramural basketball, girls' volleyball team, track, the Spanish Club, the Computer Club, and the Ski Club. The paper provides detailed description of all aspects of the project, including: how it was conceptualized and structured; the role of the classroom teacher; the role of the support staff; and the perspectives of activity leaders (i.e., coaches, club advisors, etc.), parents, and other students on inclusion of students with disabilities in these extracurricular activities. This project provides a nice illustration of the cooperative effort between a human service agency and a public school in use of respite funds to provide supports for student participation in after-school activities. Examples are given which illustrate ways in which the students with disabilities experienced sense of school membership and school spirit that went far beyond the walls of the special education classroom.